Died in 1801

Jan 2 Johann Kaspar Lavater a Swiss poet and physiognomist.
Jan 4 Duchess Louise Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Schwerin the maternal grandmother of Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
Jan 11 Domenico Cimarosa an Italian opera composer of the Neapolitan school. He wrote more than eighty operas during his lifetime, including his masterpiece, Il matrimonio segreto
Jan 14 Sir George Staunton 1st Baronet an employee of the East India Company and a botanist.
Feb 7 Daniel Chodowiecki most famous as an etcher. He spent most of his life in Berlin, and became the director of the Berlin Academy of Art
Feb 17 Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia a daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover.
Feb 27 James Madison Sr. a prominent Virginia planter, who served as a colonel in the militia during the American Revolutionary War. He inherited Mount Pleasant, later known as Montpelier, a large tobacco plantation in Orange County, Virginia and, with the acquisition of more property, had 5,000 acres and became the largest landowner in the county. He was father to U.S. President James Madison, who inherited what he called Montpelier
Mar 14 Ignacy Krasicki Poland's leading Enlightenment poet , a critic of the clergy, Poland's La Fontaine, author of the first Polish novel, playwright, journalist, encyclopedist, and translator from French and Greek.
Mar 16 Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia a daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia and sister of Emperors Alexander I and Nicholas She became Archduchess of Austria upon her marriage to Archduke Joseph of Austria, Governor of Hungary.
Mar 19 Ambrosio O'Higgins 1st Marquis of Osorno a member of the O'Higgins family and an Irish-born Spanish colonial administrator. He served the Spanish Empire as captain general of Chile and viceroy of Peru. Chilean independence leader Bernardo O'Higgins was his illegitimate son
Mar 21 Andrea Luchesi an Italian composer.
Mar 23 Paul I of Russia the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. He was the only son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, and remained overshadowed by his mother for much of his life. Paul's reign lasted for only five years, ending with his assassination by conspirators. His most important achievement was the adoption of the laws of succession to the Russian throne that lasted until the end of the Romanov dynasty and the Russian Empire
Mar 25 Novalis the pseudonym of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg , a poet, author, and philosopher of early German Romanticism.
Mar 28 Ralph Abercromby a Scottish soldier and politician. He rose to the rank of lieutenant-general in the British Army, was noted for his services during the Napoleonic Wars, and served as Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
Apr 1 Joseph Duplessis a French painter, known for the clarity and immediacy of his portraits.
Apr 7 Noël François de Wailly a French grammarian and lexicographer.
Apr 7 Jacobus Buys a Dutch painter and engraver.
Apr 11 Antoine de Rivarol a Royalist French writer during the Revolutionary era.
Apr 22 Murad Bey an Egyptian Mamluk chieftain , cavalry commander and joint ruler of Egypt with Ibrahim Bey. He is often remembered as being a cruel and extortionate ruler
May 12 Nicholas Repnin an Imperial Russian statesman and general from the Repnin princely family who played a key role in the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
May 13 Princess Maria Felicita of Savoy a princess of the house of Savoy, the third daughter of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia and his second wife Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg. A religious woman, she died unmarried
May 17 William Heberden an English physician.
May 25 Charles Stuart (British Army officer) a British nobleman and soldier. The fourth son of John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute and Mary Wortley Montagu, he was born in Kenwood House, London
Jun 4 Frederick Muhlenberg an American minister and politician who was the first Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. A delegate and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and a Lutheran pastor by profession, Muhlenberg was born in Trappe, Pennsylvania
Jun 14 Benedict Arnold a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army. While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fortifications at West Point, New York , overlooking the cliffs at the Hudson River , and planned to surrender it to the British forces. After the plan was exposed in September 1780, he was commissioned into the British Army as a brigadier general
Jul 26 Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria Archbishop and Elector Spiritual of Cologne , Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and the last child of the Habsburg ruler of Austria Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Not only his father, the ex-Duke of Lorraine, but also two of his brothers and one of his nephews were Holy Roman Emperors: Joseph II, Leopold II and, until his abdication in 1806 , Francis II; and two of his sisters were Queen Consorts: Marie Antoinette of France and Maria Carolina of the Two Sicilies. He was the last fully functioning Elector of Cologne and was the employer and patron of the young Ludwig van Beethoven
Jul 29 Louis Hurtaut Dancourt a French librettist, dramatist, and actor.
Aug 31 Nicola Sala an Italian composer and music theorist. He was born in Tocco Caudio and died in Naples. He was chapel-master and professor at Naples, having devoted himself to the collection of the finest models of printed music
Sep 7 Princess Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Philippsthal Duchess and regent from 1763 to 1782 of Saxe-Meiningen.
Sep 10 Jason Fairbanks an early American murderer. Fairbanks came from a prominent family in Dedham, Massachusetts. He was the son of Ebenezer and Prudence Farrington Fairbanks and lived in the Fairbanks House, today the oldest wood-framed house in the country. He was born with a lame arm. His sixth cousin, once removed, was Vice President Charles Fairbanks
Oct 3 Philippe Henri marquis de Ségur a marshal of France.
Oct 12 Ivan Gannibal a Russian military leader and eminent Russian of African and Russian descent. He was the son of military commander and politician Abram Petrovich Gannibal, as well as the great-uncle of Russia's most famous poet, Alexander Pushkin
Oct 13 Richard Pulteney an English physician and botanist. He was a promoter of Linnaean taxonomy, and authored the first English language biography of Carl Linnaeus, entitled A General View of the Writings of Linnaeus. He was educated at Loughborough Grammar School, and a school house was named after him
Oct 20 Ivan Lazarevich Lazarev a Russian-Armenian jeweler, one of the richest patrons in Russia under Catherine the Great. He was born in Isfahan's New Julfa Armenian quarter, Iran and moved to Saint Petersburg in the 1860s
Nov 4 William Shippen an American physician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was a civic and educational leader who represented Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress
Nov 5 Humphry Marshall an American botanist and plant dealer.
Nov 5 Motoori Norinaga a Japanese scholar of Kokugaku active during the Edo period. He is probably the best known and most prominent of all scholars in this tradition
Nov 9 Carl Stamitz a German composer of partial Czech ancestry. He was the most prominent representative of the second generation of the Mannheim School
Nov 14 Grzegorz Piramowicz a Polish Catholic priest, educator, writer, and philosopher. He was a member of the Commission of National Education and Society for Elementary Books, and one of the founders of the Society of Friends of the Constitution
Nov 15 Archduchess Maria Clementina of Austria an Austrian archduchess and the tenth child and third daughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Luisa of Spain. In 1797 she married her first cousin Hereditary Prince Francis of Naples, heir of Naples and Sicily. She was modest, well educated and kind becoming popular in her adoptive country. Afflicted with frail health, she died of tuberculosis, age twenty four. Her only surviving child was the famous duchesse de Berry
Nov 28 Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu a French geologist; the mineral and the rock dolomite and the largest summital crater on the Piton de la Fournaise volcano were named after him.
Dec 8 Infanta Maria Josefa of Spain a Princess of Naples and Sicily by birth. At the accession of her father to the Spanish throne as Charles III, she became an Infanta of Spain. Born and raised in Naples, she arrived in Spain with her family in October 1759, at age fifteen. She lived at the court of her father and later with her brother Charles IV of Spain. She remained unmarried
Dec 16 Charles Louis Hereditary Prince of Baden heir apparent of the Margraviate of Baden. He was born in Karlsruhe
Dec 19 Francesco Saverio de Zelada a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, born of a Spanish family, who served in the Papal Curia and in the diplomatic service of the Holy See.
Dec 22 Jovan Rajić a Serbian and Bulgarian writer, historian, traveller, and pedagogue, considered one of the greatest Serbian academics of the 18th century. He was one of the most notable representatives of Serbian Baroque literature along with Zaharije Orfelin, Pavle Julinac, Vasilije III Petrović-Njegoš, Simeon Končarević, Simeon Piščević, and others
Dec 27 Darya Nikolayevna Saltykova a Russian murderer and noble from Moscow who became notorious for torturing and killing over 100 of her serfs, mostly women and girls.