Died in 1804

Jan 4 Charlotte Lennox an English author and poet. She is most famous now as the author of The Female Quixote and for her association with Samuel Johnson, Joshua Reynolds, and Samuel Richardson, but she had a long career and wrote poetry, prose, and drama
Jan 7 Louis Marc Antoine de Noailles the second son of Philippe, duc de Mouchy, and a member of Mouchy branch of the famous Noailles family of the French aristocracy.
Jan 19 Paul Kray a soldier, and general in Habsburg service during the Seven Years War, the War of Bavarian Succession, the Austro–Turkish War , and the French Revolutionary Wars. He was born in Késmárk, Upper Hungary
Jan 26 José Nicolás de Azara a Spanish diplomat.
Feb 2 George Walton signed the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia and also served as the second Chief Executive of that state.
Feb 5 Christian Joseph Jagemann a German scholar, court-advisor and librarian.
Feb 6 Joseph Priestley an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and Liberal political theorist who published over 150 works. He is usually credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier also have a claim to the discovery
Feb 12 Immanuel Kant widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics
Mar 1 Princess Carolina of Parma a Princess of Parma by birth, and Princess of Saxony by marriage to Prince Maximilian of Saxony. Carolina was the eldest child of Ferdinand, Duke of Parma and his wife Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria
Mar 3 Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo an Italian painter and printmaker in etching. He was the son of artist Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and elder brother of Lorenzo Baldissera Tiepolo
Mar 7 Thomas Malton an English painter of topographical and architectural views, and an engraver. M. Turner and Thomas Girtin were amongst his pupils. He is designated "the younger" to differentiate him from his father Thomas Malton, the elder
Mar 21 Louis Antoine Duke of Enghien a relative of the Bourbon monarchs of France. More famous for his death than for his life, he was executed on trumped-up charges of aiding Britain and plotting against France. Royalty across Europe were shocked and dismayed, and never again trusted Napoleon. Tsar Alexander I of Russia was especially alarmed, and decided to curb Napoleon's power
Mar 26 Wolfgang von Kempelen an author and inventor, known for his chess-playing "automaton" hoax The Turk and for his speaking machine.
Mar 30 Ivan Khandoshkin a Russian Empire violinist and composer of Ukrainian Cossack origin. He has been described as "the finest Russian violinist of the eighteenth century"
Mar 30 Victor-François 2nd duc de Broglie a French aristocrat and soldier and a marshal of France. He served with his father, François-Marie, 1st duc de Broglie, at Parma and Guastalla, and in 1734 obtained a colonelcy
Apr 3 Jędrzej Kitowicz a Polish historian and diarist.
Apr 5 Jean-Charles Pichegru a distinguished French general of the Revolutionary Wars. Under his command, French troops overran Belgium and the Netherlands before fighting on the Rhine front. His subsequent involvement in a royalist conspiracy to remove Napoleon from power led to his arrest and death
Apr 9 Jacques Necker a French statesman of Swiss birth and finance minister of Louis XVI, a post he held in the lead-up to the French Revolution in 1789.
Apr 20 Ernest II Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg the third but second surviving son of Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen. The death of his older brother Frederick in 1756 made him the heir to the duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
May 5 Antonio José Cavanilles a leading Spanish taxonomic botanist of the 18th century. He named many plants, particularly from Oceania. He named at least 100 genera, about 54 of which were still used in 2004, including Dahlia, Calycera, Cobaea, Galphimia, and Oleandra
Jun 16 Johann Adam Hiller a German composer, conductor and writer on music, regarded as the creator of the Singspiel, an early form of German opera. In many of these operas he collaborated with the poet Christian Felix Weiße. Furthermore, Hiller was a teacher who encouraged musical education for women, his pupils including Elisabeth Mara and Corona Schröter. He was Kapellmeister of Abel Seyler's theatrical company, and became the first Kapellmeister of Leipzig Gewandhaus
Jun 18 Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria the Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla by marriage. Maria Amalia was a daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis She was thus younger sister to Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor and older sister to Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Marie Antoinette, Queen of France
Jun 25 Georges Cadoudal a French politician, and leader of the Chouannerie during the French Revolution. He was named a Marshal of France in 1814
Jul 12 Alexander Hamilton a founding father of the United States, chief staff aide to General George Washington, one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the U.S. Constitution, the founder of the nation's financial system, and the founder of the first political party
Jul 30 Carlo Allioni an Italian physician and professor of botany at the University of Turin. His most important work was Flora Pedemontana, sive enumeratio methodica stirpium indigenarum Pedemontii 1755, a study of the plant world in Piedmont, in which he listed 2813 species of plants, of which 237 were previously unknown. In 1766, he published the Manipulus Insectorum Tauriniensium
Aug 4 Adam Duncan 1st Viscount Duncan a British admiral who defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown on 11 October 1797. This victory was considered one of the most significant actions in naval history
Aug 19 Louis-René Levassor de Latouche Tréville a French Vice-admiral. He fought in the American War of Independence and became a prominent figure of the French Revolutionary Wars and of the Napoleonic wars
Aug 19 Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer born in Delle, near Belfort, became a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and on three occasions led armies in battle.
Sep 20 Pierre Méchain a French astronomer and surveyor who, with Charles Messier, was a major contributor to the early study of deep sky objects and comets.
Sep 20 Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre a French naturalist who contributed sections on cetaceans, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects to the Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique. He is also notable as the first scientist to study the feral child Victor of Aveyron
Sep 29 Michael Hillegas the first Treasurer of the United States.
Oct 2 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot a French inventor. He is known to have built the first working self-propelled mechanical vehicle, the world's first automobile. This claim is disputed by some sources, however, which suggest that Ferdinand Verbiest, as a member of a Jesuit mission in China, may have been the first to build, around 1672, a steam-powered vehicle but that was too small to carry a driver or passengers
Oct 8 Thomas Cochran (judge) a lawyer and judge in Prince Edward Island.
Oct 15 Antoine Baumé a French chemist.
Oct 29 George Morland an English painter of animals and rustic scenes.
Nov 1 Johann Friedrich Gmelin a German naturalist, botanist, entomologist, herpetologist and malacologist.
Nov 2 Armand-Gaston Camus a successful advocate before the French Revolution. He was the son of Pierre Camus, a lawyer in the Parlement of Paris
Nov 5 Maria Anna Adamberger an Austrian actress. She was known for her roles in various comedies, while her sister Katharina Adamberger preferred tragic roles. Heinrich von Collin and other poets have composed pieces about her
Nov 19 Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi an Italian opera composer.
Nov 23 Richard Graves an English minister, poet, and novelist.
Nov 23 Ivan Mane Jarnović a virtuoso violinist-composer of the 18th century whose family was of possibly Ragusan origin. He had a European career, performing in almost all major centres including Paris, Berlin, Warsaw, St Petersburg, Vienna, Stockholm, Basle, London, Dublin, amongst others. It appears he was a pupil of Antonio Lolli and he was an acquaintance of Joseph Haydn, with whom he shared concert programmes in London
Dec 1 Philippe le Bon a French engineer, born in Brachay, France.
Dec 24 Martin Vahl a Danish-Norwegian botanist and zoologist.