Died in 1805

Jan 9 Noble Wimberly Jones an American physician and statesman from Savannah, Georgia. A leading Georgia patriot in the American Revolution, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1781 and 1782
Jan 17 Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron the first professional French scholar of Indian culture. He conceived the institutional framework for the new profession. He inspired the founding of the École française d'Extrême-Orient a century after his death and, later still, the founding of the Institut francais de Pondichéry
Jan 18 John Moore (archbishop of Canterbury) Archbishop of Canterbury in the Church of England.
Jan 23 Claude Chappe a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France. This was the first practical telecommunications system of the industrial age, making Chappe the first telecom mogul with his "mechanical internet."
Feb 3 Joachim Christian Timm an apothecary, mayor of Malchin, and a botanist with a particular interest in cryptograms. This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation Timm when citing a botanical name
Feb 4 Johann George Tromlitz a flautist, flute maker and composer.
Feb 17 Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti an Austrian naturalist of Italian origin.
Feb 25 Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt Queen consort of Prussia as the second wife of King Frederick William II.
Feb 25 Thomas Pownall a British politician and colonial official. He was governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay from 1757 to 1760, and afterward served in the British Parliament. He travelled widely in the North American colonies prior to the American Revolutionary War, opposed Parliamentary attempts to tax the colonies, and was a minority advocate of colonial positions until the Revolution
Feb 28 Naphtali Hirz Wessely a.k.a. NaphtaliHirz Wessely, also Wesel , was an 18th-century German Jewish Hebraist and educationist
Mar 4 Jean-Baptiste Greuze a French painter.
Mar 14 Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki a member of the Polish szlachta and a military commander of the forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and then Poland. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded in August 1775
Mar 17 Franz Xaver von Wulfen a botanist, zoologist, mineralogist, alpinist, and Jesuit priest. He is credited with discovering the flowering plants Wulfenia carinthiaca, Saxifraga moschata, and Stellaria bulbosa. In 1845 the lead molybdate mineral wulfenite was named in his honor by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger
Mar 18 Étienne Eustache Bruix a French Navy admiral.
Mar 24 Aloys I Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein from 1781 until his death. He was the third son of Franz Josef I
Apr 7 Gabriel Gruber Very Rev. Gabriel Gruber, S.J. was the second Superior General of the Society of Jesus in Russia
Apr 13 Pietro Arduino an Italian botanist. His official abbreviation is Ard
Apr 18 Apollo Mussin-Pushkin a Russian chemist and plant collector. He led a botanical expedition to the Caucasus in 1802 with his friend botanist Friedrich August Marschall von Bieberstein
Apr 25 Jean-Baptiste Gaspard d'Ansse de Villoison a classical scholar born at Corbeil-sur-Seine, France.
Apr 25 Anna Lopukhina a royal mistress to Emperor Paul of Russia. In 1798, She replaced Catherine Nelidova as the chief mistress
Apr 28 Peter Pelham (composer) an English-born American organist, harpsichordist, teacher and composer.
May 2 Vieira Portuense a Portuguese painter, one of the introducers of Neoclassicism in Portuguese painting. He was, in the neoclassical style, one of the two great Portuguese painters of his generation, with Domingos Sequeira
May 7 William Petty 2nd Earl of Shelburne generally known to history, was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister 1782–1783 during the final months of the American War of Independence. He succeeded in securing peace with America and this feat remains his most notable legacy. He was also well known as a collector of antiquities and works of art
May 9 Friedrich Schiller a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life , Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. They frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he left as sketches. This relationship and these discussions led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism. They also worked together on Xenien, a collection of short satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents to their philosophical vision
May 12 Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim the 71st Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, formally the Order of John of Jerusalem, by then better known as the Knights of Malta, being the first German to be elected to the office. It was under his rule that the Order lost their island home to France, after ruling there since 1530. This effectively marked the end of their sovereignty over an independent state, dating from the time of the Crusades
May 24 Fedot Shubin widely regarded as the greatest sculptor of 18th-century Russia.
May 25 William Paley an English clergyman, Christian apologist, philosopher, and utilitarian. He is best known for his natural theology exposition of the teleological argument for the existence of God in his work Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, which made use of the watchmaker analogy
May 28 Luigi Boccherini an Italian classical era composer and cellist whose music retained a courtly and galante style while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers. Boccherini is most widely known for one particular minuet from his String Quintet in E, 11, 5 , and the Cello Concerto in B flat major. The latter work was long known in the heavily altered version by German cellist and prolific arranger Friedrich Grützmacher, but has recently been restored to its original version. Boccherini composed several guitar quintets including the "Fandango" which was influenced by Spanish music. His biographer Elisabeth Le Guin noted among Boccherini's musical qualities "an astonishing repetitiveness, an affection for extended passages with fascinating textures but virtually no melodic line, an obsession with soft dynamics, a unique ear for sonority, and an unusually rich palette of introverted and mournful affects."
Jun 2 Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy a princess of Savoy by birth and the wife of Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, grandson of Louis XV and younger brother of Louis XVI. Some nineteen years after her death, her husband assumed the throne of France as King Charles X
Jun 3 Princess Louise of Saxe-Meiningen a Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen by birth and by marriage Landgravine of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld.
Jun 19 Louis-Jean-François Lagrenée a French rococo painter and student of Carle van Loo. He won the Grand Prix de Rome for painting in 1749 and was elected a member of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in 1755. His younger brother Jean-Jacques Lagrenée was also a painter
Jul 1 Pinchas Horowitz a rabbi and Talmudist.
Jul 2 Patrick Russell (herpetologist) a Scottish surgeon and naturalist who worked in India. He studied the snakes of India and is considered the 'Father of Indian Ophiology'. Russell's viper, Daboia russelii, is named after him
Jul 31 Dheeran Chinnamalai a Kongu chieftain and Palayakkarar from Tamil Nadu who rose up in revolt against the British East India Company in the Kongu Nadu, Southern India. Kongunadu comprised the modern day districts of Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Tirupur, Erode, Salem, Dharmapuri, Karur, Namakkal and parts of Dindigul District and Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu state
Aug 3 Christopher Anstey an English writer and poet.
Aug 9 Nikolay Zubov the eldest of the Zubov brothers who, together with Count Pahlen, masterminded the conspiracy to assassinate Tsar Paul of Russia.
Aug 28 Alexander Carlyle a Scottish church leader, and autobiographer.
Oct 5 Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis a British Army officer and colonial administrator. In the United States and the United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence. His surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America. He also served as a civil and military governor in Ireland and India; in both places he brought about significant changes, including the Act of Union in Ireland, and the Cornwallis Code and the Permanent Settlement in India
Oct 16 Mihrişah Valide Sultan a Georgian consort to Ottoman Sultan Mustafa III. She was the mother of Sultan Selim III of the Ottoman Empire and his de facto co-regent as the Valide Sultan for sixteen years from 1789 until 1805
Oct 21 John Cooke (Royal Navy officer) an experienced and highly regarded officer of the Royal Navy during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary Wars and the first years of the Napoleonic Wars. Cooke is best known for his death in hand-to-hand combat with French forces during the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. During the action, his ship HMS Bellerophon was badly damaged and boarded by sailors and marines from the French ship of the line Aigle. Cooke was killed in the ensuing melee, but his crew successfully drove off their opponents and ultimately forced the surrender of Aigle
Oct 21 Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was noted for his inspirational leadership and superb grasp of strategy and unconventional tactics, which resulted in a number of decisive naval victories, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was wounded several times in combat, losing one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife and the sight in one eye in Corsica. He was shot and killed during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805
Oct 21 George Duff a British naval officer during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars, who was killed by a cannonball at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Nov 5 Giovanni Andrea Archetti an Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal.
Nov 8 François-Thomas-Marie de Baculard d'Arnaud a French writer and dramatist.
Nov 24 Jacques Antoine Marie de Cazalès a French orator and politician.
Dec 1 Joseph Bernard de Chabert a French sailor, geographer and astronomer.
Dec 2 Alexander Vorontsov the Russian imperial chancellor during the early years of Alexander I's reign.
Dec 2 Ferdinand von Tiesenhausen a Russian noble and military officer of German Baltic origin.
Dec 3 Jean-Marie Valhubert born on October 22, 1764, at Avranches in Normandy, and died December 3, 1805 at Brünn. He was a French General during the French Revolution
Dec 6 Nicolas-Jacques Conté a French painter, balloonist, army officer, and inventor of the modern pencil.