Born in 1806

Jan 1 Lionel Kieseritzky a Baltic German chess master, famous primarily for a game he lost against Adolf Anderssen, which because of its brilliance was named "The Immortal Game".
Jan 3 Henriette Sontag a German operatic soprano of great international renown. She possessed a sweet-toned, lyrical voice and was a brilliant exponent of florid singing
Jan 6 Christian Eduard Langethal a German botanist and agronomist. He is known for his writings involving agricultural botany and agricultural history
Jan 8 Jean Gigoux a French painter and illustrator. He is best known as the last paramour of Eveline Hańska, the widow of French novelist Honoré de Balzac
Jan 10 Camillo di Pietro an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and both Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals and later Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
Jan 11 Ferdinand Minding a German-Russian mathematician known for his contributions to differential geometry. He continued the work of Gauss concerning differential geometry of surfaces, especially its intrinsic aspects. Minding considered questions of bending of surfaces and proved the invariance of geodesic curvature. He studied ruled surfaces, developable surfaces and surfaces of revolution and determined geodesics on the pseudosphere. Minding's results on the geometry of geodesic triangles on a surface of constant curvature anticipated Beltrami's approach to the foundations of non-Euclidean geometry
Jan 13 Michel Chevalier a French engineer, statesman, economist and free market liberal.
Jan 14 Matthew Fontaine Maury an American astronomer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator.
Jan 19 Alecu Donici a Moldavian-born Romanian poet and translator.
Jan 20 Nathaniel Parker Willis also known as P. Willis, was an American author, poet and editor who worked with several notable American writers including Edgar Allan Poe and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He became the highest-paid magazine writer of his day. For a time, he was the employer of former slave and future writer Harriet Jacobs. His brother was the composer Richard Storrs Willis and his sister Sara wrote under the name Fanny Fern
Jan 25 Daniel Maclise an Irish history, literary and portrait painter, and illustrator, who worked for most of his life in London, England.
Jan 27 Julius Hübner a German historical painter of the Düsseldorf school of painting. He was also known as a poet and the father of Emil Hübner, a distinguished classical scholar
Jan 27 Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga a Spanish composer. He was nicknamed "the Spanish Mozart" after he died, because, like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, he was both a child prodigy and an accomplished composer who died young. They also shared the same first and second baptismal names; and they shared the same birthday, January 27
Jan 28 Hermann Brockhaus a German Orientalist born in Amsterdam. He was a leading authority on Sanskrit and Persian languages. He was the son of publisher Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus and brother-in-law to composer Richard Wagner
Feb 1 François Jouffroy a French sculptor.
Feb 5 Robert Montgomery Bird an American novelist, playwright, and physician.
Feb 7 Charles Fenno Hoffman an American author, poet and editor associated with the Knickerbocker Group in New York.
Feb 9 Teodolfo Mertel a lawyer and deacon and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was the last cardinal not to have been ordained at least a priest
Feb 13 Vladimir Alexeyevich Kornilov a Russian naval officer who took part in the Crimean War.
Feb 14 Joseph-François Malgaigne a French surgeon and medical historian born in Charmes-sur-Moselle, Vosges.
Feb 22 Antoine Wiertz a Belgian romantic painter and sculptor.
Feb 22 Levko Borovykovsky a romantic poet, writer, translator, and folklorist. After graduating in 1830 from Kharkiv University, Borovykovsky taught in a Kursk gymnasium and from 1839 in the Poltava Institute for Daughters of the Nobility. In 1852 he became a gymnasium inspector in Poltava gubernia and retired a few years later. His works were first published in 1828, and he was one of the first poets of the Kharkiv Romantic School. Of his numerous poems, the most notable is the ballad "Marusia" , a free reworking of Vasilii Zhukovsky's "Svetlana." During his lifetime only one collection of his writings was published, Baiky i prybaiutky , which brought him recognition as a storyteller. He also translated the poetry of Horace, Aleksandr Pushkin, and Adam Mickiewicz, compiled a Ukrainian dictionary, and collected Ukrainian folklore. Borovykovsky's collected works—Tvory and Povne zibrannia tvoriv —were published in Kyiv
Feb 22 Józef Kremer a Polish historian of art, a philosopher, an aesthetician and a psychologist.
Feb 24 William Webb Ellis Rev. William Webb Ellis was an Anglican clergyman who is famous for allegedly being the inventor of Rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School
Feb 25 Friedrich Welwitsch an Austrian explorer and botanist who in Angola discovered the plant Welwitschia mirabilis. His report received wide attention among the botanists and general public, comparable only to the discovery of two other plants in the 19th century, namely Victoria amazonica and Rafflesia arnoldii
Mar 3 Emil Adolf Rossmässler a German biologist.
Mar 3 Anders Gustaf Dahlbom a Swedish entomologist.
Mar 6 Elizabeth Barrett Browning one of the most prominent English poets of the Victorian era. Her poetry was widely popular in both Britain and the United States during her lifetime
Mar 9 Wilhelm Lindenschmit the Elder a German history painter born in Mainz. He was an older brother to prehistorian Ludwig Lindenschmit , and father to history painter Wilhelm Lindenschmit the Younger
Mar 9 Edwin Forrest a prominent nineteenth-century American Shakespearean actor. His legendary feud with the British actor William Charles Macready helped spark the deadly Astor Place Riot of 1849
Mar 11 Carlo Pellion di Persano an Italian admiral and politician, who was commander of the Italian fleet at the 1866 Battle of Lissa.
Mar 12 Jane Pierce Means Appleton Pierce , wife of U.S. President Franklin Pierce, was First Lady of the United States from 1853 to 1857
Mar 13 Adolphe Napoléon Didron a French art historian and archaeologist.
Mar 20 Désiré Nisard a French author and literary critic. He was born at Châtillon-sur-Seine
Mar 21 Benito Juárez a Mexican lawyer and politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca who served as the president of Mexico for five terms: 1858–1861 as interim, then 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872 as constitutional president. He resisted the French occupation of Mexico, overthrew the Second Mexican Empire, restored the Republic, and used liberal measures to modernize the country
Mar 22 Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst a German botanist and mycologist.
Mar 28 Hans Victor von Unruh a Prussian civil servant and politician, President of the Prussian National Assembly of 1848 and Member of the Reichstag of the German Empire.
Mar 28 Thomas Hare (political scientist) a British proponent of electoral reform.
Apr 2 Friedrich Halm more generally known under his pseudonym Friedrich Halm.
Apr 2 Giacomo Antonelli an Italian cardinal deacon. He was the Cardinal Secretary of State from 1848 until his death; he played a key role in Italian politics, resisting the unification of Italy and affecting Roman Catholic interests in European affairs. He was often called the "Italian Richelieu"
Apr 3 Ivan Kireyevsky credited as a co-founder of the Slavophile movement.
Apr 6 Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl a German scholar best known as a student of Plautus.
Apr 9 Heinrich Mücke a prominent Realist painter known for his liturgical and genre paintings as well as frescoes, which still adorn some of Germany's ancient castles and cathedrals. His paintings are hung today in Germany's leading museums, including the National Gallery Berlin, Breslau Museum and the Brunn Museum. His son, Karl Mücke, was also a recognized genre painter. Heinrich Mücke was a professor at the Düsseldorf Academy and received the Portuguese Medal for Art and Sciences as well as the Breslau Medal. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting
Apr 9 Isambard Kingdom Brunel an English mechanical and civil engineer who built dockyards, the Great Western Railway, a series of steamships including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship and numerous important bridges and tunnels. His designs revolutionised public transport and modern engineering
Apr 10 Leonidas Polk a Confederate general in the American Civil War who was once a planter in Maury County, Tennessee, and a second cousin of President James Polk. He also served as bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Louisiana and was for that reason known as Sewanee's Fighting Bishop
Apr 10 Juliette Drouet a French actress. She abandoned her career on the stage after becoming the mistress of Victor Hugo, to whom she acted as a secretary and travelling companion. Juliette accompanied Hugo in his exile to the Channel Islands, and wrote thousands of letters to him throughout her life
Apr 11 Pierre Guillaume Frédéric le Play a French engineer, sociologist and economist.
Apr 11 Robert Bigsby an English antiquarian and author.
Apr 11 Count Anton Alexander von Auersperg an Austrian poet and liberal politician from Carniola.
Apr 15 Émile Souvestre a French novelist who was a native of Morlaix, Finistère.