Died in 1808

Jan 1 Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1756–1808) a member of the House of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and a Princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and a Duchess in Saxony by birth. Through her marriage to Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, Louise was also a member of the House of Mecklenburg and Duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 24 April 1785 through 1 January 1808
Jan 4 Prince Benedetto Duke of Chablais a prince of Savoy and Duke of Chablais. He was born in the reign of his father Charles Emmanuel III, King of Sardinia. He has no descendants but had a distinguished military career. He married his niece and was the owner of the Palazzo Chiablese in Turin
Jan 5 Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov a Russian soldier and statesman, who rose to prominence during the reign of Catherine the Great.
Feb 14 John Dickinson (Pennsylvania and Delaware) a solicitor and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware known as the "Penman of the Revolution" for his twelve Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, published individually in 1767 and 1768. As a member of the First Continental Congress - where he was a signee to the Continental Association - Dickinson drafted most of the 1774 Petition to the King, and then as a member of the Second Continental Congress wrote the 1775 Olive Branch Petition, two attempts to negotiate with the King of England. When these failed, he reworked Thomas Jefferson's language and wrote the final draft of the 1775 Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms. When Congress then decided to seek Independence, Dickinson served on the committee which wrote the Model Treaty, and then wrote the first draft of the 1776-1777 Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union
Feb 20 Gerard Lake 1st Viscount Lake a British general. He commanded British forces during the Irish Rebellion of 1798 and later served as Commander-in-Chief of the military in British India
Feb 22 Giovanni Maria Angioy considered to be a national hero by Sardinian nationalists. Although best known for his political activities, Angioy was a university lecturer, a judge for the Reale Udienza, an entrepreneur and a banker
Feb 29 Carlos Baguer a Catalan classical era composer and organist known as "Carlets" during his lifetime.
Mar 3 Anton von Maron an Austrian painter, active in Rome.
Mar 9 Joseph Bonomi the Elder an Italian architect and draughtsman notable for his activity in England.
Mar 12 Jean Gaspard de Vence a French privateer, admiral and Maritime Prefect of Toulon.
Mar 13 Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher joined the army of the First French Republic and fought in the French Revolutionary Wars. During the Napoleonic Wars he rose in rank to command a division. He was accidentally killed in 1808 while on campaign in Spain. His surname is one of the Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe
Mar 13 Christian VII of Denmark an Oldenburg monarch who ruled as King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1766 until his death. He was the son of King Frederick V and his first wife Louise of Great Britain
Mar 22 Václav Matěj Kramerius a Czech publisher, journalist and writer, one of the most important early figures of the Czech National Revival.
Apr 3 Johan Christian Fabricius a Danish zoologist, specialising in "Insecta", which at that time included all arthropods: insects, arachnids, crustaceans and others. He was a student of Carl Linnaeus, and is considered one of the most important entomologists of the 18th century, having named nearly 10,000 species of animal, and established the basis for modern insect classification
Apr 5 Johann Georg Wille a notable German engraver active in Germany and France.
Apr 7 Peter Rainier junior a British naval officer. Mount Rainier in Washington, USA, was named after him
Apr 10 Jean-Laurent Mosnier a French painter and miniaturist.
Apr 10 Charles Henry of Nassau-Siegen a French-German adventurer and sailer, who became Admiral of the Russian Imperial Navy.
Apr 15 Hubert Robert a French painter, noted for his landscape paintings and picturesque depictions of ruins.
May 2 Pedro Velarde y Santillán a Spanish artillery captain famous for his heroic death in the Dos de Mayo uprisings against the French occupation of Madrid. He became a popular hero and martyr figure for Spain's subsequent War of Independence from the French Empire
May 5 Peter Ichko a Serbian and Ottoman diplomat of Aromanian, Greek or Bulgarian origin.
May 5 Pierre Jean George Cabanis a French physiologist and materialist philosopher.
May 5 David Gilly a German architect and architecture-tutor in Prussia, known as the father of the architect Friedrich Gilly.
May 17 Carl Gottlob Rafn a Danish Enlightenment scientist and civil servant. He wrote influential papers on a broad array of basic and applied sciences
May 18 Elijah Craig a Baptist preacher in Virginia, who became an educator and capitalist entrepreneur in the area of Virginia that later became the state of Kentucky. He has sometimes, although rather dubiously, been credited with the invention of bourbon whiskey
May 28 Richard Hurd (bishop) an English divine and writer, and bishop of Worcester.
Jun 11 Giovanni Battista Cirri an Italian cellist and composer in the 18th century.
Jun 26 Ludwik Tyszkiewicz a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman and Field Lithuanian Hetman from 1780 to 1791, Great Lithuanian Treasurer from 1791, Great Lithuanian Marshal from 1793. Member of the Targowica Confederation
Jul 14 John Wilkinson (industrialist) an English industrialist who pioneered the use and manufacture of cast iron and cast-iron goods in the Industrial Revolution. He was the inventor of a precision boring machine that could bore cast iron cylinders such as those used in steam engines, which bored for James Watt's engines. His boring machine has been called the first machine tool. He also developed a blowing device for blast furnaces that allowed higher furnace temperatures, increasing their capacity
Jul 20 François-Hippolyte Barthélémon a French violinist, pedagogue, and composer active in England.
Jul 23 Jacob Sievers a Russian statesman from the Sievers family.
Jul 28 Selim III the reform-minded Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807. The Janissaries eventually deposed and imprisoned him, and placed his cousin Mustafa on the throne as Mustafa Selim was killed by a group of assassins subsequently after a Janissary revolt
Aug 10 John Baptist Albertrandi a Polish Jesuit, bishop and historian of Italian extraction, born in Warsaw.
Aug 13 Étienne Pierre Ventenat a French botanist born in Limoges. He was the brother of naturalist Louis Ventenat
Aug 19 Fredrik Henrik af Chapman a Swedish shipbuilder, scientist and officer in the Swedish navy. He was also manager of the Karlskrona shipyard 1782-1793. Chapman is credited as the first person to apply scientific methods to shipbuilding and is considered to be the first naval architect
Sep 2 Apollon Dashkov a Russian infantry general and the first Governor of Taganrog.
Sep 3 John Montgomery (delegate) an Irish-American merchant from Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress for Pennsylvania from 1782 until 1784
Sep 6 Louis-Pierre Anquetil a French historian.
Sep 11 José Celestino Mutis a Spanish priest, botanist and mathematician.
Sep 13 Saverio Bettinelli an Italian Jesuit writer.
Sep 17 Benjamin Bourne an American jurist and politician from Bristol, Rhode Island. He represented Rhode Island in the U.S. House of Representatives and served as a judge in both the federal district and federal appellate courts
Sep 22 Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (1743–1808) For the earlier archduchess of the same name, see Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria.
Sep 25 Richard Porson an English classical scholar. He was the discoverer of Porson's Law; and the Greek typeface Porson was based on his handwriting
Sep 29 Paul Wranitzky a Moravian classical composer. His half brother, Antonín, was also a composer
Oct 1 Carl Gotthard Langhans a Prussian builder and architect. His works are among the earliest buildings in the German classicism movement. His best-known work is the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin
Oct 1 Thomas Thorild a Swedish poet, critic, feminist and philosopher.
Oct 4 Martín Sessé y Lacasta a Spanish botanist, who relocated to New Spain during the 18th century to study and classify the flora of the territory.
Oct 8 Princess Wilhelmina of Hesse-Kassel a Prussian princess, married to prince Henry of Prussia.
Oct 9 John Claiborne a son of Thomas Claiborne and brother of Thomas Claiborne. He was a Representative from Virginia; born in Brunswick County, Virginia, in 1777; pursued academic studies; was graduated from the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia in 1798 and practiced; elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Ninth and Tenth Congresses and served from March 4, 1805, until his death in Brunswick County, Virginia, on October 9, 1808; interment in the family burying ground of Parson Jarratt, Dinwiddie, Virginia
Oct 15 James Anderson of Hermiston a Scottish agriculturist, journalist and economist. A member of the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, Anderson was a prominent figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. He invented the Scotch plough