Born in 1809

Jan 1 Maria Micaela Desmaisieres the founder of the Handmaids of the Blessed Sacrament and of Charity.
Jan 1 Achille Guenée a French lawyer and entomologist.
Jan 2 Friedrich Wilhelm Jähns a German music scholar, voice teacher, and composer. He is best known for his thematic catalog of the works of Carl Maria von Weber
Jan 3 Bogusław Fryderyk Radziwiłł a Polish nobleman and Prussian military officer and politician. At the time Poland was partitioned, he lived in the Kingdom of Prussia, where he was a member of the Prussian parliament. He attained the rank of general within the Prussian Army
Jan 4 Louis Braille a French educator and inventor of a system of reading and writing for use by the blind or visually impaired. His system remains known worldwide simply as braille
Jan 12 Leopoldo O'Donnell 1st Duke of Tetuan a Spanish general and statesman. He was of Irish paternal descent, a descendant of Calvagh O'Donnell, Rí of Tyrconnell
Jan 12 Émile Loubon a French genre painter.
Jan 13 Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust a German and Austrian statesman.
Jan 15 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon a French politician, the founder of Mutualist philosophy, an economist and a socialist. He was the first person to declare himself an anarchist and is among its most influential theorists. He is considered by many to be the "father of anarchism". He became a member of the French Parliament after the revolution of 1848, whereafter he referred to himself as a federalist
Jan 17 Pierre Adolphe Chéruel a French historian.
Jan 19 Edgar Allan Poe an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story, and is generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre. He is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career
Jan 20 Sebastián Iradier Salaverri , a.k.a. Sebastián Yradier, was a Spanish composer
Jan 23 Veer Surendra Sai an Indian freedom fighter who sacrificed his life fighting against the British and died in obscurity. Surendra Sai has a demi-god status in Western Odisha region. Surendar Sai and his associates Madho Singh, Kunjal Singh, Airi Singh, Bairi Sing, Uddant Sai, Ujjal Sai, Khageswar Dao, Salegram Bariha, Govind Singh, Pahar Singh, Rajee Ghasia, Kamal Singh, Hati Singh, Salik Ram Bariha, Loknath Panda/Gadtia, Mrutunjaya Panigrahi, Jagabandu Hota, Padmanave Guru, Trilochan Panigrahi and many others resisted the British and successfully protected most parts of Western Odisha region for some time from the British rule. Most of them died unnoticed fighting for freedom from the British. Many of them were hanged by the British; a few died in the Cellular Jail in the Andamans. Surendar Sai himself died in Asirgarh Jail on 28 February 1884
Jan 23 Hermann Guido von Samson-Himmelstjerna a Baltic German physician and professor of Staatsarzneikunde.
Jan 28 Theodor Benfey a German philologist and the son of a Jewish trader from Nörten in Lower Saxony. In 1834 he became a Privatdozent at the University of Göttingen, teaching Sanskrit and Comparative Grammar
Feb 1 Peter W. Barlow an English civil engineer, particularly associated with railways, bridges , the design of tunnels and the development of tunnelling techniques. In 1864 he patented a design for a cylindrical tunnelling shield, later developed further by his pupil James Greathead in the construction of a tunnel under the Thames
Feb 2 George Engelmann a German-American botanist. He was instrumental in describing the flora of the west of North America, then very poorly known; he was particularly active in the Rocky Mountains and northern Mexico, one of his constant companions being another German-American, the botanical illustrator Paulus Roetter
Feb 3 Felix Mendelssohn a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period.
Feb 6 Karl Bodmer a printmaker, etcher, lithographer, zinc engraver, draftsman, painter, illustrator and hunter. Known as Karl Bodmer in literature and paintings, as a Swiss and French citizen his name has been listed as Johann Karl Bodmer and Jean-Charles Bodmer respectively. After 1843, likely as a result of his son Charles-Henry Barbizon, he began to sign his works K Bodmer
Feb 7 Matija Majar a Carinthian Slovene Roman Catholic priest and political activist, best known as the creator of the idea of a United Slovenia.
Feb 12 Abraham Lincoln the 16th president of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional and political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy
Feb 12 Charles Darwin an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding
Feb 13 Victor Mottez a French fresco painter, painter and portraitist.
Feb 15 Cyrus McCormick an Inventor and founder of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, which became part of International Harvester Company in 1902. From the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, he and many members of his family became prominent residents of Chicago
Feb 15 André Dumont a Belgian geologist.
Feb 21 Teofil Kwiatkowski a Polish painter.
Feb 22 Karl Heinzen a revolutionary author who resided mainly in Germany and the United States. He was one of the German Forty-Eighters
Feb 23 William Sprague (Michigan) a minister and politician in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Feb 24 Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel a German Generalfeldmarschall noted for his victories in the Franco-Prussian War.
Feb 25 Morgan C. Hamilton an American merchant, politician from Alabama and Texas, and brother of Andrew Jackson Hamilton. Both men were unusual as Unionists in Texas during the American Civil War
Feb 25 George Washington Cullum an American soldier, engineer and writer. He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, primarily serving in the Western Theater
Feb 27 Jean-Charles Cornay a French missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society who was martyred in Vietnam. He was executed in Ha Tay, Tonkin, now Vietnam, during the persecutions of Emperor Minh Mạng
Mar 1 Robert Cornelius an American pioneer of photography and lamp manufacturer.
Mar 6 Alexandra Smirnova a Russian Imperial court lady-in-waiting who served first widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna, then, after her death in 1828, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna. Alexandra Rossette , was an elitist Saint Petersburg salon hostess and a friend of Alexander Pushkin, Vasily Zhukovsky, Pyotr Vyazemsky, Nikolai Gogol and Mikhail Lermontov. She is best remembered for her memoirs, unusually frank, occasionally caustic, and, as it was argued decades later, not necessarily accurate
Mar 7 Malbim a rabbi, master of Hebrew grammar, and Bible commentator.
Mar 9 Bettino Ricasoli an Italian statesman.
Mar 15 Joseph Jenkins Roberts the first and seventh President of Liberia. Born free in Norfolk, Virginia, US, Roberts emigrated to Liberia in 1829 as a young man. He opened a trading store in Monrovia, and later engaged in politics. When Liberia became independent in 1847, Roberts was elected the first president, serving until 1856. In 1872 he was elected again to serve as Liberia's seventh president
Mar 15 Karl Josef von Hefele a Roman Catholic bishop and theologian of Germany.
Mar 19 Fredrik Pacius a German composer and conductor who lived most of his life in Finland. He has been called the "Father of Finnish music"
Mar 21 Jules Favre a French statesman. After the establishment of the Third Republic in September 1870, he became one of the leaders of the Opportunist Republicans faction
Mar 21 Alessandro Gavazzi an Italian preacher and patriot. He at first became a monk , and attached himself to the Barnabites at Naples, where he afterwards acted as professor of rhetoric
Mar 22 Albrecht von Bernstorff a Prussian statesman.
Mar 23 Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin a 19th-century French painter. His celebrated 1836 work Jeune Homme Nu Assis au Bord de la Mer is in the Louvre
Mar 24 Mariano José de Larra a Spanish romantic writer best known for his numerous essays, and his infamous suicide. His works were often satirical and critical of the 19th-century Spanish society, and focused on both the politics and customs of his time
Mar 24 Joseph Liouville a French mathematician.
Mar 27 Jean-Louis Beaudry a Canadian entrepreneur and politician. Beaudry served as mayor of Montreal three times, from 1862 to 1866, from 1877 to 1879, and from 1881 to 1885 for a total time served as mayor of ten years
Mar 27 Georges-Eugène Haussmann the Prefect of the Seine Department in France, who was chosen by the Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris, commonly called Haussmann's renovation of Paris. Critics forced his resignation for extravagance, but his vision of the city still dominates Central Paris
Mar 28 George Richmond (painter) an English painter. In his youth he was a member of The Ancients, a group of followers of William Blake. Later in life he established a career as a portrait painter
Mar 31 Edward FitzGerald (poet) an English poet and writer, best known as the poet of the first and most famous English translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. The writing of his name as both FitzGerald and Fitzgerald is seen. The use here of FitzGerald conforms with that of his own publications, anthologies such as Quiller-Couch's Oxford Book of English Verse, and most reference books up until about the 1960s
Mar 31 Otto Lindblad a Swedish composer. He is most famous for the musical score of Kungssången, the Swedish royal anthem