Died in 1810

Jan 15 Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. Her name was often spelt in English as Princess Dashkov
Jan 20 Benjamin Chew a fifth-generation American, a Quaker-born legal scholar, a prominent and successful Philadelphia lawyer, head of the Pennsylvania Judiciary System under both Colony and Commonwealth, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Province of Pennsylvania. Chew was well known for his precision and brevity in making legal arguments as well as his excellent memory, judgment, and knowledge of statutory law. His primary allegiance was to the supremacy of law and constitution
Jan 21 John Shortland a naval officer, the eldest son of John Shortland. Shortland joined the Royal Navy as a midshipman and went to Quebec in a transport commanded by his father. From 1783 to 1787 he served in the West Indies. In 1787 he was master's mate in the Sirius when the First Fleet sailed for Australia. Shortland spent nearly five years in Australia including time on Norfolk Island where Sirius was wrecked in 1790. In 1792 he returned to England
Jan 23 Johann Wilhelm Ritter a German chemist, physicist and philosopher. He was born in Samitz near Haynau in Silesia , and died in Munich
Feb 7 Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt a Polish–Lithuanian Jesuit astronomer and mathematician. He was professor of Vilnius University for over 50 years, serving as its rector from 1780 to 1799. The Poczobutt crater on the Moon is named after him
Feb 15 Józef Klemens Czartoryski a Polish nobleman who owned the Korets Castle. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded in 1767
Feb 20 Andreas Hofer a Tyrolean innkeeper and drover, who in 1809 became the leader of the Tyrolean Rebellion against the French and Bavarian occupation forces during the War of the Fifth Coalition. He was subsequently captured and executed
Feb 22 Charles Brockden Brown generally regarded by scholars as the most important American novelist before James Fenimore Cooper. He is the most frequently studied and republished practitioner of the "early American novel," or the US novel between 1789 and roughly 1820. Although Brown was not the first American novelist, as some early criticism claimed, the breadth and complexity of his achievement as a writer in multiple genres makes him a crucial figure in US literature and culture of the 1790s and first decade of the 19th century, and a significant public intellectual in the wider Atlantic print culture and public sphere of the era of the French Revolution
Feb 24 Henry Cavendish a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist. Cavendish is noted for his discovery of hydrogen or what he called "inflammable air". He described the density of inflammable air, which formed water on combustion, in a 1766 paper "On Factitious Airs". Antoine Lavoisier later reproduced Cavendish's experiment and gave the element its name
Feb 28 Jacques-André Naigeon a French artist, atheist philosopher, editor and man of letters best known for his contributions to the Encyclopédie and for reworking Baron d'Holbach's and Diderot's manuscripts.
Mar 1 Jean-Jacques de Boissieu a French draughtsman, etcher and engraver.
Mar 7 Cuthbert Collingwood 1st Baron Collingwood an admiral of the Royal Navy, notable as a partner with Lord Nelson in several of the British victories of the Napoleonic Wars, and frequently as Nelson's successor in commands.
Mar 9 Ozias Humphry a leading English painter of portrait miniatures, later oils and pastels, of the 18th century. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1791, and in 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons to the King
Mar 18 Ernst Ferdinand Klein a German jurist and prominent representative of the Berlin Enlightenment.
Mar 19 Louis Masreliez a Swedish painter and interior designer.
Mar 22 Semyon Bobrov a Russian poet and civil servant.
Mar 24 David Collins (lieutenant governor) the first Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Van Diemens Land, founded in 1804, which in 1901 became the state of Tasmania in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Apr 8 Venanzio Rauzzini an Italian castrato, composer, pianist, singing teacher and concert impresario. As a boy he was a member of the Sistine Chapel Choir and was a pupil of Domenico Corri and Muzio Clementi. He also studied with Giuseppe Santarelli in Rome and Nicola Porpora in Naples
Apr 9 Alessandro Malaspina an Italian nobleman who spent most of his life as a Spanish naval officer and explorer. Under a Spanish royal commission, he undertook a voyage around the world from 1786 to 1788, then, from 1789 to 1794, a scientific expedition throughout the Pacific Ocean, exploring and mapping much of the west coast of the Americas from Cape Horn to the Gulf of Alaska, crossing to Guam and the Philippines, and stopping in New Zealand, Australia, and Tonga
May 2 Henry Jerome de Salis an English churchman. He was Rector of Antholin in the City of London and Vicar of Wing in Buckinghamshire. He was also known as: Revd Henry Jerome de Salis, MA; the Hon. & Rev. Henry Jerome De Salis, Count of the Holy Roman Empire; de Salis; Rev. Henry Jerome de Salis, and, from 1809, Rev. Count Henry Jerome de Salis
May 17 Robert Tannahill a Scottish poet of labouring class origin. Known as the 'Weaver Poet', he wrote in the wake of Robert Burns and in the judgement of some is second only to him
May 21 Chevalier d'Eon a French diplomat, spy and soldier who fought in the Seven Years War. D'Éon had androgynous physical characteristics and natural abilities as a mimic, good features for a spy. D'Éon appeared publicly as a man and pursued masculine occupations for 49 years, although during that time d'Éon successfully infiltrated the court of Empress Elizabeth of Russia by presenting as a woman. For 33 years, from 1777, d'Éon dressed as a woman, claiming to be assigned female at birth. Doctors who examined the body after d'Éon's death discovered that d'Éon would have actually been assigned male at birth
May 31 William Martin (naturalist) an English naturalist and palaeontologist who proposed that science should use fossils as evidence to support the study of natural history. Martin published the first colour pictures of fossils and the first scientific study of fossils in English
Jun 7 Luigi Schiavonetti born at Bassano in Venetia.
Jun 13 Johann Gottfried Seume born at Poserna.
Jun 20 Axel von Fersen the Younger a Swedish count, Marshal of the Realm of Sweden, a Lieutenant General in the Royal Swedish Army, one of the Lords of the Realm, aide-de-camp to Rochambeau in the American Revolutionary War, diplomat and statesman. He is famous in history as the friend of Queen Marie Antoinette of France, and because of his death at the hands of a Stockholm lynch mob
Jun 21 Giovanni Battista Caprara an Italian statesman and cardinal and archbishop of Milan from 1802 to 1810. Legate of Pius VII in France, he implemented the Concordat of 1801
Jun 21 William Paterson (explorer) a Scottish soldier, explorer, Lieutenant governor and botanist best known for leading early settlement in Tasmania.
Jun 26 Montgolfier brothers Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier were the inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. The brothers succeeded in launching the first manned ascent, carrying Étienne into the sky. Later, in December 1783, in recognition of their achievement, their father Pierre was elevated to the nobility and the hereditary appellation of de Montgolfier by King Louis XVI of France
Jul 15 Jean-Baptiste Rey a French conductor and composer.
Jul 19 Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Queen consort of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III. The couple's happy, though short-lived, marriage produced nine children, including the future monarchs Frederick William IV of Prussia and German Emperor Wilhelm I
Jul 27 Eugenius Johann Christoph Esper a German entomologist. Born in Wunsiedel in Bavaria, he was professor of zoology at Erlangen university
Aug 2 Princess Charlotte Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a German duchess.
Aug 8 William Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal a member of the House of Hesse and Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal from 1770 until his death.
Aug 12 Étienne Louis Geoffroy a French entomologist and pharmacist. He was born in Paris and died in Soissons. He followed the binomial nomenclature of Carl von Linné and devoted himself mainly to beetles
Aug 13 Jacques-François Menou a French statesman of the French Revolution and general of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Aug 18 Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu a French explorer, hydrographer and politician. He was Minister of the Navy under Louis XVI, and a member of the Institut de France, as well as the brother of the botanist Marc Antoine Louis Claret de la Tourette
Aug 26 Santiago de Liniers 1st Count of Buenos Aires a French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He is more widely known by the Spanish form of his name, Santiago de Liniers. He was popularly regarded as the hero of the reconquest of Buenos Aires after the first British invasion of the Río de la Plata, which led to his designation as viceroy, replacing Rafael de Sobremonte. Such a thing, the replacement of a viceroy without the King's direct intervention, was completely unprecedented. He was confirmed in office by Charles IV of Spain, and endured a second ill-fated British Invasion attempt and a mutiny that sought to replace him. He was replaced in 1809 by Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, appointed as viceroy by the Junta of Seville, and retired from public activity. However, when the May Revolution took place, Liniers decided to come out of his retirement and organized a monarchist uprising in Córdoba. However, Liniers was defeated, captured, and executed without trial
Sep 12 Sir Francis Baring 1st Baronet an English merchant banker, a member of the Baring family, later becoming the first of the Baring baronets.
Sep 13 William Cushing an early Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, from its inception to his death. He was the longest-serving of the Court's original members, sitting on the bench for 21 years. Had he accepted George Washington's appointment, he would have become the third Chief Justice of the United States
Sep 19 Gabriel de Avilés 2nd Marquis of Avilés a Spanish military officer and colonial administrator in America. He was governor of Chile, viceroy of Río de la Plata, and viceroy of Peru
Sep 25 József Alvinczi a soldier in the Habsburg Army and a Field Marshal of the Austrian Empire.
Oct 6 Vincenzo Petagna an Italian biologist and physician, and a director of the Monte Oliveto botanical gardens. The plant Petagnaea gussonei is named in his honour
Oct 15 Alfred Moore a North Carolina judge who became a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Moore Square, a park located in the Moore Square Historic District in Raleigh, North Carolina was named in his honor. Moore County, established in 1784, also in the state of North Carolina, is named in his honor. Moore was buried at the Philip's Church near Wilmington
Oct 16 Nachman of Breslov the founder of the Breslov Hasidic movement.
Oct 19 Jonas Carlsson Dryander a Swedish botanist.
Oct 19 Jean-Georges Noverre generally considered the creator of ballet d'action, a precursor of the narrative ballets of the 19th century. His birthday is now observed as International Dance Day
Oct 21 Franz Teyber an Austrian Kapellmeister, organist and composer of orchestral and chamber music. Studying at Wagenseil, from 1786 he was director of the Schikaneder theatre company and from 1801 a composer and musical director of the Theater an der Wien. His sisters Elisabeth and Therese were opera singers, and his brother Anton worked as a composer to the Dresden opera and Vienna court
Nov 2 Princess Amelia of the United Kingdom a member of the British Royal Family. She was the youngest daughter and child of King George III of the United Kingdom and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Nov 11 Johann Zoffany a German neoclassical painter, active mainly in England. His works appear in many prominent British National galleries such as the National Gallery, London, the Tate Gallery and in the Royal Collection