Born in 1811

Jan 4 Aristide Cavaillé-Coll a French organ builder. He has the reputation of being the most distinguished organ builder of the 19th century. He pioneered innovations in the art and science of organ building that permeated throughout the profession and influenced the course of organ building through the early twentieth century. The organ reform movement sought to return organ building to a more Baroque style, but in the last few decades of the twentieth century Cavaillé-Coll's designs came back into fashion. After Cavaillé-Coll's death, Charles Mutin maintained the business into the 20th century. Cavaillé-Coll was the author of many scientific journal articles and books on the organ in which he published the results of his researches and experiments. He was the inventor of several organ sounds/ranks/stops such as the flûte harmonique
Jan 5 Cyrus Hamlin an American Congregational missionary and educator, the father of D. Hamlin
Jan 6 Charles Sumner an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. An academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the American Civil War working to destroy the Confederacy, free all the slaves and keep on good terms with Europe. During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the Freedmen
Jan 9 Gilbert Abbott à Beckett an English humorist.
Jan 18 Édouard René de Laboulaye a French jurist, poet, author and anti-slavery activist. He is remembered as the intellectual creator of the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor, proposing the idea for a monument in 1865 paid by the citizens of France, and the lesser known Luxembourg Gardens in Paris, France
Jan 18 Charles Kean born at Waterford, Ireland, the son of the actor Edmund Kean.
Jan 21 Roderich Benedix a German dramatist and librettist, born in Leipzig, where he was educated there at Thomasschule.
Feb 3 Horace Greeley editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time. Long active in politics, he served briefly as a congressman from New York, and was the candidate of the Democratic and Liberal Republican parties in the 1872 presidential election. He was defeated by President Ulysses Grant, but died before the casting of the electoral vote
Feb 4 Peter Julian Eymard a French Catholic priest, founder of two religious institutes, and a canonized saint.
Feb 5 William Henry Harvey an Irish botanist who specialised in algae.
Feb 5 Thomas Creswick an English landscape painter and illustrator, and one of the best-known members of the Birmingham School of landscape painters.
Feb 6 Henry Liddell still used by students of Greek. Lewis Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures in Wonderland for Henry Liddell's daughter Alice
Feb 11 László Teleki a Hungarian writer and statesman. He is remembered as the author of the drama Kegyencz. In older books in English he is given the name "Ladislas Teleky"
Feb 13 François Achille Bazaine a French general and from 1864, a Marshal of France, who surrendered the last organized French army to the Prussians during the Franco-Prussian war. He was the first Marshal who had started as a legionnaire and like the great Marshals of the First Empire, had risen from the ranks. During four decades of distinguished service under Louis-Philippe and then Napoleon III, he held every rank in the Army from Fusilier to Marshal of France. He became renowned for his determination to lead from the front, for his impassive bearing under fire and for personal bravery verging on the foolhardy. He was sentenced to death by the government of the Third Republic, for his surrender of the fortress city of Metz and his army of 180,000 men to the Prussians on 27 October 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. This sentence was commuted to 20 years imprisonment in exile, from which he subsequently escaped. He eventually settled in Spain where aged 77, he died alone and impoverished in 1888. To the Foreign Legion he remains a hero and to this day is honoured as one of their bravest soldiers
Feb 14 Georg Heinrich Ferdinand Nesselmann a German orientalist, philologist with interests in Baltic languages, and a mathematics historian.
Feb 15 Domingo Faustino Sarmiento an Argentine activist, intellectual, writer, statesman and the seventh President of Argentina. His writing spanned a wide range of genres and topics, from journalism to autobiography, to political philosophy and history. He was a member of a group of intellectuals, known as the Generation of 1837, who had a great influence on nineteenth-century Argentina. He was particularly concerned with educational issues and was also an important influence on the region's literature
Feb 19 Jules Sandeau a French novelist.
Feb 19 Andreas Müller (painter) a German historical painter.
Feb 19 William Hamilton 11th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish nobleman and the Premier Peer of Scotland.
Feb 20 Henry Hastings Sibley the first Governor of the U.S. state of Minnesota and a U.S. Representative of the Minnesota Territory and the Wisconsin Territory
Feb 24 Friedrich Daniel Bassermann best known for calling for a pan-German Parliament at the Frankfurt Parliament. He emphasized the value of a national self-esteem based on progress and freedom
Feb 26 Heinrich Christian Burckhardt a German forester and entomologist.
Mar 2 Hugh Edwin Strickland an English geologist, ornithologist, naturalist, and systematist.
Mar 4 John Lawrence 1st Baron Lawrence an Englishman who became a prominent British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869.
Mar 7 Increase A. Lapham an author, scientist, and naturalist.
Mar 8 Jan Tyssowski a Dictator of the Republic of Kraków during the failed 1846 uprising. He was a Polish intellectual and activist during Poland's rebellions against its occupying powers. He studied philosophy and law at the University of Lwow. After the failed 1831 November Uprising, Russian authorities prohibited his return to Lwow, and he went study at the University of Vienna. He was a Polish political organizer in Galicia with Ludwik Mieroslawski, and was active within the aristocracy and insurrectionist movement. In 1846, Krakow revolted against the Austrians and they withdrew, leaving the Polish-controlled Republic of Krakow in Tyssowski's hands. The government had originally been established as a triumvirate between Tyssowski and two others, but personal differences led Tyssowski to take control. Intending a "classless society", he declared universal suffrage, emancipation of the peasantry, and the discontinuation of rents for peasants. The Republic attempted to expand into neighboring rural areas, and sympathetic peasants did join the cause, but these units were defeated by much larger Austrian armies, which also had broad support among the peasants. On March 3, Russia occupied the city and passed it back to Austria. Roughly 1,200 people were arrested and approximately 100 were imprisoned in the Kufstein Fortress. The Austrian Empire captured Tyssowski who surrendered to the occupying forces, and allowed him to emigrate
Mar 9 Ernst Julius Hähnel a German sculptor and Professor at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts.
Mar 11 Francesco Lamperti an Italian singing teacher.
Mar 11 Urbain Le Verrier best known for his part in the discovery of Neptune.
Mar 13 Camille-Marie Stamaty a French pianist, piano teacher and composer predominantly of piano music and studies. Today largely forgotten, he was one of the preeminent piano teachers in 19th century Paris. His most famous pupils were Louis Moreau Gottschalk and Camille Saint-Saëns
Mar 17 Karl Gutzkow a German writer notable in the Young Germany movement of the mid-19th century.
Mar 19 Josef Kling a German chess master and chess composer. In 1851 he wrote Chess Studies with Bernhard Horwitz
Mar 20 George Caleb Bingham an American artist whose paintings of American life in the frontier lands along the Missouri River exemplify the Luminist style. Left to languish in obscurity, Bingham's work was rediscovered in the 1930s. By the time of his bicentennial in 2011, he was considered one of the greatest American painters of the 19th century. That year the George Caleb Bingham Catalogue Raisonné Supplement Of Paintings & Drawings announced the authentication of ten recently discovered paintings by Bingham; like all but about 5% of his works, they are unsigned
Mar 20 Napoleon II the son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
Mar 21 Nathaniel Woodard a priest in the Church of England. He founded 11 schools for the middle classes in England whose aim was to provide education based on "sound principle and sound knowledge, firmly grounded in the Christian faith". His educational principles are promoted today through the Woodard Corporation, a registered charity
Mar 21 Fanny Lewald a German author.
Mar 22 Sakuma Shōzan a Japanese politician and scholar of the Edo era.
Mar 27 Edward William Cooke an English landscape and marine painter, and gardener.
Mar 28 John Neumann Nepomucene Neumann, C.Ss.R. was a native of Bohemia who emigrated to the United States, where he became a Catholic priest, Redemptorist and the fourth Bishop of Philadelphia. He is the first American bishop to be canonized. While Bishop of Philadelphia, Neumann founded the first Catholic diocesan school system in the United States
Mar 28 Jean-Pierre Cluysenaar a Belgian architect. He was born in Kampen in the Netherlands as a descendant of a Dutch family of architects and engineers. During the United Kingdom of the Netherlands his family settled in the southern Belgian provinces. Cluysenaar studied architecture at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels under Tilman-François Suys. His teacher influenced him in his preference for the architecture of the Italian Renaissance
Mar 29 José María San Martín born in Nacaome, Honduras to Colonel Joaquín de San Martín and Joaquina Fugón.
Mar 30 Robert Bunsen a German chemist. He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium and rubidium with Gustav Kirchhoff. Bunsen developed several gas-analytical methods, was a pioneer in photochemistry, and did early work in the field of organoarsenic chemistry. With his laboratory assistant, Peter Desaga, he developed the Bunsen burner, an improvement on the laboratory burners then in use. The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after Bunsen and Kirchhoff
Apr 5 Jules Dupré a French painter, one of the chief members of the Barbizon school of landscape painters. If Corot stands for the lyric and Rousseau for the epic aspect of the poetry of nature, Dupré is the exponent of his tragic and dramatic aspects
Apr 9 Joseph Kleutgen a German Jesuit theologian and philosopher.
Apr 14 Félix Le Couppey a French music teacher, pianist and composer of a series of elementary études for piano students.
Apr 16 Émilien de Nieuwerkerke a French sculptor of Dutch descent and a high-level civil servant in the Second French Empire. He is also notable as the lover of Princess Mathilde Bonaparte, after her estrangement from her husband Anatole Demidov
Apr 21 Alson Sherman served as Mayor of Chicago, Illinois for the Independent Democrat Party.
Apr 22 Otto Hesse a German mathematician. Hesse was born in Königsberg, Prussia, and died in Munich, Bavaria. He worked on algebraic invariants. The Hessian matrix, the Hesse normal form, the Hesse configuration, the Hessian group, Hessian pairs, Hesse's theorem, and the Hesse pencil are named after him
Apr 23 Carl Ferdinand Allen a Danish historian. He studied at the University of Copenhagen
May 1 Andreas Laskaratos a satirical poet and writer from the Ionian island of Cefalonia , representative of the Heptanese School. He was excommunicated by the Greek Orthodox Church because his satire targeted many of the church's prominent members