Died in 1811

Jan 10 Sir William Green 1st Baronet an officer in the British Army. After receiving a private education in Aberdeen, Scotland and a military education at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, England, he was appointed as a practitioner engineer in 1743. Green served on the European continent until 1752, after which he was in Canada. There, he continued to advance through both the ordinary military and engineering ranks. Following his return to England, Green was named senior engineer for Gibraltar about 1761, and the next year promoted to lieutenant colonel. He was promoted to chief engineer for Gibraltar in 1770, and designed and executed a number of military works on the Rock. In 1772, his idea of a regiment of military artificers, to replace the civilian mechanics who had formerly constructed military works, came to fruition in the form of the Soldier Artificer Company, the predecessor of the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners. Their works included the King's Bastion, which Green designed. Promoted to colonel in 1777, he served as chief engineer throughout the Great Siege of Gibraltar. During the siege, he was promoted to brigadier general, then major general. He returned to England in 1783; three years later a baronetcy was created for him. He was appointed chief engineer of Great Britain in 1786. His promotions included that to lieutenant general in 1793 and full general in 1798. Following his retirement in 1802, he settled in Plumstead, Kent
Jan 10 Joseph Chénier a French poet, dramatist and politician of Greek origin.
Jan 11 Christoph Friedrich Nicolai a German writer and bookseller.
Jan 21 Jean Chalgrin a French architect, best known for his design for the Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Jan 23 Leonardo Antonelli an Italian Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church.
Jan 23 Pedro Caro 3rd Marquis of la Romana a Spanish general of the Peninsular War.
Jan 31 Manuel Alberti a priest from Buenos Aires, when the city was part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He had a curacy at Maldonado, Uruguay during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, and returned to Buenos Aires in time to take part in the May Revolution of 1810. He was chosen as one of the seven members of the Primera Junta, which is considered the first national government of Argentina. He supported most of the proposals of Mariano Moreno and worked at the Gazeta de Buenos Ayres newspaper. The internal disputes of the Junta had a negative effect on his health, and he died of a heart attack in 1811
Feb 9 Nevil Maskelyne the fifth English Astronomer Royal. He held the office from 1765 to 1811
Feb 20 Friedrich Christian Meuschen a German diplomat and conchologist born in Hanau. He was the son of theologian Johann Gerhard Meuschen
Feb 27 Joseph Leutgeb an outstanding horn player of the classical era, a friend and musical inspiration for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Mar 3 Friedrich Heinrich Wiggers a German botanist who wrote a flora of Holstein in 1780. A number of variants of his name exist, including "Fridrich Hindrich" and the Latinisation "Fredericus Henricus" and the alternative surname "Wichers"
Mar 4 Mariano Moreno an Argentine lawyer, journalist, and politician. He played a decisive role in the Primera Junta, the first national government of Argentina, created after the May Revolution
Mar 14 Augustus FitzRoy 3rd Duke of Grafton a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era. He is one of a handful of dukes who have served as Prime Minister
Apr 5 Robert Raikes an English philanthropist and Anglican layman, noted for his promotion of Sunday schools. Pre-dating state schooling and by 1831 schooling 1,250,000 children, they are seen as the first schools of the English state school system
Apr 7 Dositej Obradović a Serbian author, philosopher, linguist, traveler, polyglot and the first minister of education of Serbia. An influential protagonist of the Serbian national and cultural renaissance, he advocated Enlightenment and rationalist ideas while remaining a Serbian patriot and an adherent of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Founder of modern Serbian literature, he is commonly referred to by his mononym, first name alone. He became a monk in the Serb Orthodox monastery of Hopovo, in the Srem region, and acquired the name Dositej. He translated many European classics, including Aesop's Fables, into Serbian
Apr 7 Garsevan Chavchavadze a Georgian politician and diplomat primarily known as a Georgian ambassador to Imperial Russia.
Apr 12 D'Ewes Coke rector of Pinxton and South Normanton in Derbyshire, a colliery owner and philanthropist.
Apr 13 Arkadi Suvorov a Russian general. A son of Alexander Suvorov, he rose to the rank of lieutenant general
Apr 26 John Fraser (botanist) a Scottish botanist who collected plant specimens around the world, from North America and the West Indies to Russia and points between, with his primary career activity from 1780 to 1810. Fraser was a commissioned plant collector for Catherine, Czar of Russia in 1795, Paul I of Russia in 1798, and for the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna in 1806; he issued nursery catalogues 1790 and 1796, and had an important herbarium that was eventually sold to the Linnean Society
May 4 Nikolay Kamensky a Russian general who outlived his father, Field Marshal Mikhail Kamensky, by two years.
May 7 Richard Cumberland (dramatist) See also Cumberland , Cumberland.
May 28 Henry Dundas 1st Viscount Melville a Scottish advocate and Tory politician. He was the first Secretary of State for War and became, in 1806, the last person to be impeached in the United Kingdom, for misappropriation of public money. Although acquitted, he never held public office again
Jun 10 Charles Frederick Grand Duke of Baden Margrave, elector and later Grand Duke of Baden from 1738 until his death.
Jun 19 Samuel Chase an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and earlier was a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland. Early in life, Chase was a "firebrand" states-righter and revolutionary. His political views changed over his lifetime, and, in the last decades of his career, he became well known as a staunch Federalist and was impeached for allegedly letting his partisan leanings affect his court decisions
Jun 23 Nicolau Tolentino de Almeida the foremost Portuguese satirical poet of the 18th century. Beginning at age 20, Tolentino studied law for three years at the University of Coimbra; he then ended those studies to teach rhetoric. He was sent to Lisbon in 1776 to fill a post, and was named professor of rhetoric a year later. His interests soon shifted once again, from teaching, to public office. He wrote against the Marquis of Pombal, and therefore gained the favor of Pombal's successor. He was awarded with a sinecure office in the royal administration. In 1790, he was honored with the title of knight of the royal family
Jun 25 Joseph-Alphonse Esménard a French poet and the brother of the journalist Jean-Baptiste Esménard.
Jul 17 Christian Schkuhr a German gardener, artist and botanist.
Jul 19 Raphaël Bienvenu Sabatier a French anatomist and surgeon born in Paris.
Jul 20 Jean-François de Bourgoing a French diplomat, writer and translator. A commander of the légion d'honneur, he was also a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences, a member of the Copenhagen Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 1810, a knight then a baron de l'Empire, and a knight of the Swedish Order of the Polar Star
Jul 30 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla a Mexican Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
Aug 12 Sir John Acton 6th Baronet commander of the naval forces of Grand Duchy of Tuscany and prime minister of Naples under Ferdinand IV.
Aug 21 Barbara Zdunk an ethnically Polish alleged arsonist and witch who lived in the city of Rößel, now in Poland but between 1772 and 1945 part of Prussia. She is considered by many to have been the last woman executed for witchcraft in Europe. This is doubtful because witchcraft was not a criminal offense in Prussia at the time. It is thus likely that she was convicted, formally at least and most probably wrongly, of arson
Aug 22 Juan de Villanueva a Spanish architect. Alongside Ventura Rodríguez, Villanueva is the best known architect of Spanish Neoclassicism
Aug 23 Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden a Russian infantry general and government official. Buxhoeveden commanded the Russian armies during the Finnish War
Aug 28 John Leyden a Scottish orientalist.
Aug 31 Louis Antoine de Bougainville a French admiral and explorer. A contemporary of James Cook, he took part in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War against Britain. He later gained fame for his expeditions, the first recorded settlement on the Falkland Islands and his voyages into the Pacific Ocean
Sep 4 Matsumura Goshun a Japanese Painter of the Edo Period and founder of the Shijō school of painting. He was a disciple of the painter and poet Yosa Buson , a master of Japanese southern school painting
Sep 6 Ignaz Fränzl a German violinist, composer and representative of the second generation of the so-called Mannheim School. Mozart who heard him at a concert in November 1777 wrote of him in a letter to his father: He may not be a sorcerer, but he is a very solid violinist indeed. Fränzl carried the Mannheim violin technique, established by Johann Stamitz, one step further to real virtuosity. Mozart, quite a good violinist himself and thoroughly acquainted with the instrument, praised Fränzl's double trill and said he had never heard a better one
Sep 8 Andreyan Zakharov a Russian architect and representative of the Empire style. His designs also alternated neoclassicism with eclecticism
Sep 8 Mikhail Abramovich Popov a Russian businessman and politician, merchant of the second guild and the first mayor of Perm.
Sep 8 Peter Simon Pallas a German zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia.
Sep 30 Thomas Percy (bishop of Dromore) Bishop of Dromore, County Down, Ireland. Before being made bishop, he was chaplain to George III. Percy's greatest contribution is considered to be his Reliques of Ancient English Poetry , the first of the great ballad collections, which was the one work most responsible for the ballad revival in English poetry that was a significant part of the Romantic movement
Oct 11 Johann Conrad Amman (1724-1811) a Swiss physician, naturalist, and collector.
Oct 15 Nathaniel Dance-Holland a notable English portrait painter and later a politician.
Oct 28 Yashwantrao Holkar H. Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shrimant Yashwant Rao Holkar Bahadur, was one of the Maharaja from Maratha Empire. He was born on 3 December 1776. He was a gifted military leader and educated in accountancy as well as literate in Persian and Marathi. Yashwant Rao has been often referred to as the "Napoleon of India"
Nov 21 Heinrich von Kleist a German poet, dramatist, novelist and short story writer. The Kleist Prize, a prestigious prize for German literature, is named after him
Nov 27 Andrew Meikle a Scottish mechanical engineer credited with inventing the threshing machine, a device used to remove the outer husks from grains of wheat. He also had a hand in assisting Firbeck in the invention of the Rotherham Plough. This was regarded as one of the key developments of the British Agricultural Revolution in the late 18th century. The invention was made around 1786, although some say he only improved on an earlier design
Nov 27 Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain.
Dec 1 Ludwik Szymon Gutakowski the second Prime Minister of Poland, and the President of the Council of State and of the Cabinet.
Dec 8 Eliza Poe an English-born American actress and the mother of the American author Edgar Allan Poe.