Born in 1812

Jan 1 Louis Leroy a French 19th century engraver, painter, and successful playwright. However, he is remembered as the journalist and art critic for the French satirical newspaper Le Charivari, who coined the term "impressionists" to satirise the artists now known by the word
Jan 3 Elisha M. Pease a Texas politician. He served as the fifth and thirteenth governor of Texas
Jan 6 Melchora Aquino a Filipina revolutionary who became known as "Tandang Gillian" in the history of the Philippines because of her age when the Philippine Revolution broke out in 1896. She is also known as the "Grand Woman of the Revolution" and the "Mother of Mother of Laurel" for her contributions to Philippine history
Jan 8 Vasily Botkin a Russian essayist, literary, art and music critic, translator and publicist.
Jan 8 Sigismond Thalberg a composer and one of the most distinguished virtuoso pianists of the 19th century.
Jan 9 Eduard van der Nüll an Austrian architect, who was one of the great masters in the historicist style of Vienna's Ringstrasse.
Jan 10 Georg Hermann Nicolai a German architect and educator, Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts on the Brühl Terrace in Dresden from 1850 until his death.
Jan 11 James Brown (bishop of Shrewsbury) an English prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the Bishop of Shrewsbury from 1851 to 1881
Jan 13 Victor de Laprade a French poet and critic.
Jan 14 Karl Graedener a German composer.
Jan 15 Peter Christen Asbjørnsen a Norwegian writer and scholar. He and Jørgen Engebretsen Moe were collectors of Norwegian folklore. They were so closely united in their lives' work that their folk tale collections are commonly mentioned only as "Asbjørnsen and Moe"
Jan 17 Ludwig Windthorst a German politician and leader of the Catholic Centre Party, the most notable opponent of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck during the Prussian-led unification of Germany and the Kulturkampf. Anderson argues that he was "Imperial Germany's greatest parliamentarian," one who bears comparison with Irishmen Daniel O'Connell and Charles Stewart Parnell "in his handling of party machinery and his relation to the masses."
Jan 20 Thomas Meik a British engineer, born in Duddingston, Midlothian.
Jan 28 Ilija Garašanin a Serbian politician and statesman, serving as Interior Minister and Prime Minister.
Feb 2 Yevhen Hrebinka a Ukrainian romantic writer and poet. He wrote in both the Ukrainian and Russian languages
Feb 3 Jonáš Záborský a Slovak lower nobleman and writer. He was an author of tales, epigrams, allegorical-philosophical poems, satirical poems, historical dramas, comedies and stories
Feb 5 Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès a French military officer and politician. Despite his later career as a senator under the Second French Empire, d'Anthès's name is most famous because he killed Alexander Pushkin, the great Russian poet as well as his own wife's brother-in-law, in a duel
Feb 7 Charles Dickens an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's most well-known fictional characters and is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period. During his life, his works enjoyed unprecedented popularity, and by the twentieth century he was widely seen as a literary genius by critics and scholars. His novels and short stories continue to be widely popular
Feb 7 Ivane Bagration of Mukhrani a Georgian nobleman of the House of Mukhrani, and general in the Imperial Russian service. He was one of the biggest Georgian landowners of that time and a modernizer of winemaking industry
Feb 8 Agenor Romuald Gołuchowski a Polish-Austrian conservative politician, member of parliament of Austria, Minister of Interior and governor of Galicia, and father of Agenor Maria Gołuchowski and Adam Gołuchowski. Gołuchowski was a confidant and key advisor to the Emperor Franz Joseph
Feb 9 Josef Jiří Kolár a Czech theatrical actor, director, translator, and writer.
Feb 11 Alexander H. Stephens an American politician from Georgia and Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He also served as a U.S. Representative from Georgia and as the 50th Governor of Georgia from 1882 until his death in 1883. He was an old Whig Party friend and ally of Abraham Lincoln; they met in the closing days of the Civil War but could not come to terms
Feb 14 Alfred Thomas Agate a noted American artist, painter and miniaturist.
Feb 15 Charles Lewis Tiffany founded Tiffany & in New York City in 1837. A leader in the American jewelry trade in the nineteenth century, he was known for his jewelry expertise, created the country's first retail catalog, and, in 1851, he introduced the English standard of sterling silver
Feb 16 Henry Wilson the 18th Vice President of the United States and a Senator from Massachusetts. Before and during the American Civil War, he was a leading Republican, and a strong opponent of slavery. He devoted his energies to the destruction of the "Slave Power" - the faction of slave owners and their political allies which anti-slavery Americans saw as dominating the country
Feb 19 Andrew Dickson Murray a Scottish lawyer, botanist, zoologist and entomologist. Murray studied insects which caused crop damage, specialising in the Coleoptera. In botany, he specialised in the Coniferae, in particular the Pacific rim conifer species
Feb 19 Zygmunt Krasiński the trio of great Romantic poets who influenced national consciousness during the period of Poland's political bondage. He was the most famous member of the aristocratic Krasiński family
Feb 25 Carl Christian Hall born at Christianshavn. Hall served as the Council President of Denmark , first from 1857 to 1859 and again from 1860 to 1863
Feb 27 Pieter Harting a Dutch biologist and naturalist, born in Rotterdam. He made contributions in a number of scientific disciplines, and is remembered for his work in the fields of microscopy, hydrology, botany, and biostratigraphy
Feb 27 Samo Chalupka a Slovak romantic poet.
Feb 28 Berthold Auerbach a German-Jewish poet and author. He was the founder of the German "tendency novel", in which fiction is used as a means of influencing public opinion on social, political, moral, and religious questions
Feb 29 James Milne Wilson Sir James Milne Wilson, KCMG served as Premier of Tasmania from 1869 to 1872.
Mar 1 Augustus Pugin an English architect, designer, artist and critic, chiefly remembered for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style; his work culminated in the interior design of the Palace of Westminster. Pugin designed many churches in England, and some in Ireland and Australia. Pugin was the son of Auguste Pugin, and the father of E.W. and Peter Paul Pugin, who continued his architectural firm as Pugin & Pugin
Mar 3 Alexandre Dubuque a 19th-century Russian pianist, composer and teacher of French descent.
Mar 6 Bruno Hildebrand a German economist representing the "older" historical school of economics. His economic thinking was highly critical of classical economists, especially of David Ricardo. His magnum opus was Economics of the Present and the Future. The basic aim of this work was to establish laws of economic development. Hildebrand also stated that economic development was linear not cyclical. He supported socialist theory on the basis of religion, basic morals, and his beliefs of the negative effect of propriety on economic behavior
Mar 6 Aaron Lufkin Dennison an American watchmaker and businessman who founded a number of companies.
Mar 7 Giuseppe Ferrari (philosopher) an Italian philosopher, historian and politician.
Mar 8 Louis Gurlitt a Danish-German painter of landscapes. His brother was the composer Cornelius Gurlitt, and his son was the architect and art historian also called Cornelius Gurlitt
Mar 12 Ignacio Comonfort a Mexican politician and soldier. He became President of Mexico in 1855 after a revolt based in Ayutla overthrew Santa Anna
Mar 16 Juraj Dobrila a Catholic bishop and benefactor from Istria who advocated for greater national rights for Croats under foreign rule.
Mar 19 Casimir Davaine a French physician known for his work in the field of microbiology. He was a native of Saint-Amand-les-Eaux, department of Nord
Mar 22 Stephen Pearl Andrews an American individualist anarchist, linguist, political philosopher, outspoken abolitionist, and author of several books on the labor movement and Individualist anarchism.
Mar 24 Carl Dahl a Danish marine painter during the Golden Age of Danish Painting.
Mar 26 Charles Mackay (author) a Scottish poet, journalist, author, anthologist, novelist, and songwriter, remembered mainly for his book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds.
Mar 27 Seymour Mills Spencer The Reverend Seymour Mills Spencer and his wife Ellen followed an ambition to carry out the role of missionary work in New Zealand. They were American and trained for missionary work in England. Spencer was posted to New Zealand to work under the missionary Thomas Chapman at the recently formed Te Ngae branch of the Church of England Mission. He was to take over the newly formed Taupo branch but due to scandal over Spencer's purported advances toward a Māori girl, the couple moved to Lake Tarawera. There they formed the first missionary post at Lake Tarawera; working with the local Māori they built a European-styled community called Te Wairoa. Spencer visited Rotomahana and Te Ariki many times during his 35 year term there. His work with the local Māori helped develop the area, and he was also instrumental in assisting explorers and traders in the vicinity. Seymour was reinstated to the church in 1850
Mar 27 Ivan Panaev a Russian writer, literary critic, journalist and magazine publisher.
Apr 3 Louise of Orléans an ancestor of the present King of Belgium, Italian Royal Pretender , the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and the present Prince Napoléon - head of the Imperial House of France.
Apr 5 Vakhtang Orbeliani a Georgian Romanticist poet and soldier in the Imperial Russian service, of the noble House of Orbeliani.
Apr 6 Alexander Herzen a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism. He is held responsible for creating a political climate leading to the emancipation of the serfs in 1861. His autobiography My Past and Thoughts, written with grace, energy, and ease, is often considered the best specimen of that genre in Russian literature. He also published the important social novel Who is to Blame?
Apr 6 Aaron Bernstein a German Jewish author, reformer and scientist.