1812 events in history

Jan 1 The Bishop of Durham, Shute Barrington, orders troops from Durham Castle to break up a miners strike in Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham
Jan 19 Peninsular War: After a ten-day siege, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, orders British soldiers of the Light and third divisions to storm Ciudad Rodrigo
Feb 7 The strongest in a series of earthquakes strikes New Madrid, Missouri
Feb 11 Massachusetts governor Elbridge Gerry "gerrymanders" for the first time
Feb 27 Poet Lord Byron gives his first address as a member of the House of Lords, in defense of Luddite violence against Industrialism in his home county of Nottinghamshire
Feb 27 Argentine War of Independence: Manuel Belgrano raises the Flag of Argentina in the city of Rosario for the first time
Mar 16 Battle of Badajoz (March 16 – April 6) – British and Portuguese forces besieged and defeated French garrison during Peninsular War
Mar 19 The Cádiz Cortes promulgates the Spanish Constitution of 1812
Mar 26 An earthquake destroys Caracas, Venezuela
Mar 26 A political cartoon in the Boston Gazette coins the term "gerrymander" to describe oddly shaped electoral districts designed to help incumbents win reelection
Mar 27 Hugh McGary Jr. establishes what is now Evansville, Indiana on a bend in the Ohio River
Apr 4 U.S. President James Madison enacts a ninety-day embargo on trade with the United Kingdom
Apr 6 British forces under the command of the Duke of Wellington assault the fortress of Badajoz. This would be the turning point in the Peninsular War against Napoleon-led France
Apr 30 The Territory of Orleans becomes the 18th U.S. state under the name Louisiana
May 11 Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated by John Bellingham in the lobby of the House of Commons, London
May 16 Russian Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov signs the Treaty of Bucharest, ending the Russo-Turkish War. Bessarabia is annexed by Imperial Russia
May 18 John Bellingham is found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging for the assassination of British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval
May 22 Action of 22 May 1812: A small French two-frigate squadron comprising Ariane and Andromaque, returning from a commerce raiding campaign in the Atlantic, meets the 74-gun HMS Northumberland while trying the slip to Lorient through the British blockade
Jun 1 War of 1812: The U.S. President James Madison asks the Congress to declare war on the United Kingdom
Jun 4 Following Louisiana's admittance as a U.S. state, the Louisiana Territory is renamed the Missouri Territory
Jun 18 War of 1812: The U.S. Congress declares war on Great Britain, Canada, and Ireland
Jun 23 War of 1812: Great Britain revokes the restrictions on American commerce, thus eliminating one of the chief reasons for going to war
Jun 24 Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon's Grande Armée crosses the Neman River beginning the invasion of Russia
Jul 12 War of 1812: The United States invades Canada at Windsor, Ontario
Jul 18 The Treaties of Orebro ends both the Anglo-Russian and Anglo-Swedish Wars
Jul 22 Napoleonic Wars: Peninsular War – Battle of Salamanca – British forces led by Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) defeat French troops near Salamanca, Spain
Aug 11 Peninsular War: French troops engage British-Portuguese forces in the Battle of Majadahonda
Aug 15 War of 1812: The Battle of Fort Dearborn is fought between United States troops and Potawatomi at what is now Chicago, Illinois
Aug 16 War of 1812: American General William Hull surrenders Fort Detroit without a fight to the British Army
Aug 19 War of 1812: American frigate USS Constitution defeats the British frigate HMS Guerriere off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada earning the nickname "Old Ironsides"
Aug 24 Peninsular War: A coalition of Spanish, British, and Portuguese forces succeed in lifting the two-and-a-half-year-long Siege of Cádiz
Sep 3 Twenty-four settlers are killed in the Pigeon Roost Massacre in Indiana
Sep 4 War of 1812: The Siege of Fort Harrison begins when the fort is set on fire
Sep 5 War of 1812: The Siege of Fort Wayne begins when Chief Winamac's forces attack two soldiers returning from the fort's outhouses
Sep 7 French invasion of Russia : The Battle of Borodino, the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, was fought near Moscow and resulted in a French victory
Sep 13 War of 1812: A supply wagon sent to relieve Fort Harrison is ambushed in the Attack at the Narrows
Sep 14 Napoleonic Wars: The French Grande Armée enters Moscow. The Fire of Moscow begins as soon as Russian troops leave the city
Sep 15 War of 1812: A second supply train sent to relieve Fort Harrison is ambushed in the Attack at the Narrows
Sep 15 The French army under Napoleon reaches the Kremlin in Moscow
Sep 16 The Fire of Moscow begins shortly after midnight and destroys three quarters of the city days later
Sep 18 The 1812 Fire of Moscow dies down after destroying more than three-quarters of the city. Napoleon returns from the Petrovsky Palace to the Moscow Kremlin, spared from the fire
Oct 9 War of 1812: In a naval engagement on Lake Erie, American forces capture two British ships: HMS Detroit and HMS Caledonia
Oct 13 War of 1812: Battle of Queenston Heights – As part of the Niagara campaign in Ontario, Canada, United States forces under General Stephen Van Rensselaer are repulsed from invading Canada by British and native troops led by Sir Isaac Brock
Oct 14 Work on London's Regent's Canal starts
Oct 19 Napoleon Bonaparte retreats from Moscow
Oct 23 Claude François de Malet, a French general, begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he is now the commandant of Paris
Oct 24 Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Maloyaroslavets takes place near Moscow
Oct 25 War of 1812: The American frigate, USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian
Nov 3 Napoleon's armies are defeated at the Battle of Vyazma
Nov 18 Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Krasnoi ends in French defeat, but Marshal of France Michel Ney's leadership leads to him becoming known as "the bravest of the brave"