Died in 1814

Jan 14 Charles Bossut a French mathematician and confrère of the Encyclopaedists. He was born at Tartaras, Loire, and died in Paris
Jan 20 Jean-François Pierre Peyron a French Neoclassical painter.
Jan 21 Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre a French writer and botanist. He is best known for his 1788 novel Paul et Virginie, now largely forgotten, but in the 19th century a very popular children's book
Jan 27 Johann Gottlieb Fichte a German philosopher. He was one of the founding figures of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. Fichte is often perceived as a figure whose philosophy forms a bridge between the ideas of Kant and those of the German Idealist Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Recently, philosophers and scholars have begun to appreciate Fichte as an important philosopher in his own right due to his original insights into the nature of self-consciousness or self-awareness. Like Descartes and Kant before him, he was motivated by the problem of subjectivity and consciousness. Fichte also wrote works of political philosophy and is considered one of the fathers of German nationalism
Feb 3 Jan Antonín Koželuh a renowned Bohemian composer from Velvary. He was a pupil of Josef Seger. He studied in Vienna and was a concert master in Vitus Cathedral for thirty years; his work includes both church and concert works. As one of the most respected Czech authors of his time, he also composed serious Italian opera: Allesandro nell' Indie was performed in 1769 and Demofoonte in 1772. He was the organist at the Strahov Monastery for almost forty years
Feb 12 Eduard Sandifort a Dutch physician and anatomist. He received his medical doctorate degree from Leiden University in 1763, and worked as a general practitioner in The Hague. He was fluent in Dutch, German, Swedish, and Italian. He became a professor of anatomy and surgery in 1771 at Leiden University. His most important writings are Observationes Anatomico-pathologicæ , Excercitationes anatomicoacademicæ , and the Museum Anatomicum Academiae Lugduno-Batavæ , which was finished by his son, Gerard Sandifort. Sandifort translated Nils Rosén von Rosenstein's Underrättelser om barn-sjukdomar och deras botemedel to Dutch in 1768. Sandifort was elected in 1768 as a foreign member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm
Feb 21 Andrey Voronikhin a Russian architect and painter. As a representative of classicism he was also one of the founders of the monumental Russian Empire style. Born a serf of the Stroganov family, he is best known for his work on Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg
Feb 26 Johan Tobias Sergel a Swedish neoclassical sculptor, born in Stockholm.
Feb 27 Jean Reynier Louis Ebénézer Reynier rose in rank to become a French army general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars. He led a division under Napoleon Bonaparte in the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria. During the Napoleonic Wars he continued to hold important combat commands, eventually leading an army corps during the Peninsular War in 1810-1811 and during the War of the Sixth Coalition in 1812-1813
Feb 27 Julien Louis Geoffroy a French literary critic.
Mar 2 Sousa Caldas a Colonial Brazilian poet, priest and orator, patron of the 34th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Mar 19 Joseph von Quarin an Austrian physician born in Vienna.
Mar 26 Joseph-Ignace Guillotin a French physician who proposed on 10 October 1789 the use of a device to carry out death penalties in France, as a less painful method of execution. While he did not invent the guillotine, and in fact opposed the death penalty, his name became an eponym for The actual inventor of the prototype was Antoine Louis
Mar 29 Guillaume Emmanuel Guignard vicomte de Saint-Priest a French émigré general who fought in the Russian army during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Mar 29 Claude Michel a French sculptor in the Rococo style.
Mar 29 Thomas Graves (Royal Navy officer) an officer of the Royal Navy who rose to the rank of admiral after service in the Seven Years' War, the American War of Independence, and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Mar 31 Pierre Sonnerat a French naturalist and explorer.
Apr 1 Joseph de Ferraris an Austrian general and cartographer.
Apr 12 Charles Burney an English music historian, composer and musician, and father of the writers Frances Burney and Sarah Burney.
Apr 25 Louis-Sébastien Mercier a French dramatist and writer.
May 2 Alexander Hood 1st Viscount Bridport an officer of the British Royal Navy during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars, and the brother of Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood.
May 5 Abdullah I Al-Sabah the second monarch of Kuwait's Al-Sabah dynasty, ruling from 1764 to May 3, 1814. He was the youngest son of Sabah bin Jaber, upon whose death he succeeded. He was elected to the position by chiefs and notables despite his standing as the youngest son. He is also the father of Jaber I Al-Sabah who succeeded him
May 6 Georg Joseph Vogler a German composer, organist, teacher and theorist. In a long career and colorful career extending over many more nations and decades than was usual at the time, Vogler established himself as a foremost experimenter in baroque and early classic music. His greatest successes came as performer and designer for the organ at various courts and cities around Europe, as well as a teacher, attracting highly successful and devoted pupils such as Carl Maria von Weber. His career as a music theorist and composer however was mixed, with contemporaries such as Mozart believing Vogler to have been a charlatan. Despite his mixed reception in his own life, his highly-original contributions in many areas of music and influence on his pupils endured, and combined with his eccentric and adventurous career, prompted one historian to summarize Vogler as "one of the most bizarre characters in the history of music"
May 15 Ivan Akimov a Russian painter in the Classical style.
May 21 Ignacio Jordán Claudio de Asso y del Río a Spanish diplomat, naturalist, lawyer and historian. He sometimes used the pseudonym of Melchor de Azagra
May 27 Frederick Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau a German prince of the House of Ascania and heir to the principality of Anhalt-Dessau.
May 28 William Eden 1st Baron Auckland a British statesman and diplomat. The subantarctic Auckland Islands group to the south of New Zealand, discovered in 1806, were named after him
May 29 Joséphine de Beauharnais the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French.
Jun 14 Frederick Christian II Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg a Danish prince and feudal magnate. He held the island of Als and some other castles in Schleswig
Jun 21 Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound 1st Earl of Minto a Scottish politician diplomat. He was viceroy of the short-lived Anglo-Corsican Kingdom from 1793 to 1796 and went on to become Governor-General of India between 1807 and 1813
Jun 26 Dominique Villars an 18th-century French botanist.
Jun 27 Johann Friedrich Reichardt a German composer, writer and music critic.
Jul 10 Count Camillo Marcolini a minister and general director of the fine arts for the Electorate, later Kingdom of Saxony.
Jul 12 William Howe 5th Viscount Howe a British army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence. Howe was one of three brothers who enjoyed distinguished military careers
Jul 12 Antonio de Escaño a Spanish army and navy officer. From 1808 to 1810 he was Spain's Minister for the Navy
Jul 14 James Lovell (Continental Congress) an American educator and statesman from Boston, Massachusetts. He was a delegate for Massachusetts to the Continental Congress from 1777 to 1782. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation
Jul 19 Matthew Flinders a distinguished English navigator and cartographer, who was the first to circumnavigate Australia and identify it as a continent.
Jul 25 Charles Dibdin a British musician, songwriter, dramatist, novelist and actor. With over 600 songs to his name, for many of which he wrote both the lyrics and the music and performed them himself, he was in his time the most prolific English singer-songwriter. He is best known as the composer of the song "Tom Bowling", which often features at the Last Night of the Proms
Aug 9 Antin Angelovych the first Metropolitan Archbishop of the re-built Metropolitan of Lviv from 1808 until his death in 1814.
Aug 19 Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt a Finnish, Swedish and Russian courtier and diplomat. In Finland, he is considered one of the great Finnish statesmen. Born in Tarvasjoki, Finland, he was the great grandson of Charles XII of Sweden's general, Carl Gustaf Armfeldt. His advice to Russia's Tsar Alexander I was of utmost importance for securing the autonomy of the Grand Duchy of Finland
Aug 21 Benjamin Thompson an American-born British physicist and inventor whose challenges to established physical theory were part of the 19th century revolution in thermodynamics. He also served as a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Loyalist forces in America during the American Revolutionary War. After the end of the war he moved to London where his administrative talents were recognized when he was appointed a full Colonel, and in 1784 received a knighthood from King George III. A prolific designer, he also drew designs for warships. He later moved to Bavaria and entered government service there, being appointed Bavarian Army Minister and re-organizing the army, and, in 1791, was made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire
Aug 31 Arthur Phillip the first Governor of New South Wales and founder of the settlement which became Sydney.
Sep 1 Erik Tulindberg the first known Finnish composer of classical music.
Sep 7 Pierre Victor baron Malouet a French slave-owner, conservative publicist and monarchist politician, who signed as an "Émigré" the Whitehall Accord.
Sep 8 Maria Carolina of Austria Queen of Naples and Sicily as the wife of King Ferdinand IV & III. As de facto ruler of her husband's kingdoms, Maria Carolina oversaw the promulgation of many reforms, including the revocation of the ban on Freemasonry, the enlargement of the navy under her favourite, John Acton, 6th Baronet, and the expulsion of Spanish influence. She was a proponent of enlightened absolutism until the advent of the French Revolution, when, in order to prevent its ideas gaining currency, she made Naples a police state
Sep 8 Thomas Spence an English Radical and advocate of the common ownership of land.
Sep 12 Robert Ross (British Army officer) an Irish officer in the British Army who participated in the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. He is most well known for the Burning of Washington, which included the destruction of the White House and The Capitol, and for his failure to invest Baltimore. He died at the Battle of North Point before the infamous Bombardment of Fort McHenry the next day
Sep 22 August Wilhelm Iffland a German actor and dramatic author.
Oct 1 Guillaume-Antoine Olivier a French entomologist.
Oct 2 Vera Vasilchikova a maid of honour, the first wife of General Hilarion Vasilyevich Vasilchikov and dame of the Order of Saint Catherine.