Born in 1815

Jan 1 Charles Bernard Renouvier a French philosopher.
Jan 1 Henry Lazarus the leading British clarinet virtuoso of the 19th century. George Bernard Shaw wrote of Henry Lazarus:
Jan 3 Cesare Correnti an Italian revolutionary and politician.
Jan 10 Theophan the Recluse a well-known saint in the Russian Orthodox Church. He was born George Vasilievich Govorov, in the village of Chernavsk. His father was a Russian Orthodox priest. He was educated in the seminaries at Livny, Orel and Kiev. In 1841 he was ordained, became a monk, and adopted the name Theophan. He later became the Bishop of Tambov
Jan 11 John A. Macdonald the first Prime Minister of Canada. The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century. Macdonald served 19 years as Canadian Prime Minister; only William Lyon Mackenzie King served longer
Jan 15 William Bickerton a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement after the 1844 succession crisis. In 1862, Bickerton became the founding president of the church now known as The Church of Jesus Christ , which is one of many churches that claim to be a continuation of the Church of Christ founded by Joseph Smith, in 1830
Jan 15 Sergey Durov a Russian poet, translator, writer, and political activist. A member of the Petrashevsky Circle and later the leader of his own underground group of intellectuals, Durov was arrested in 1849, spent 8 months in the Petropavloskaya Fortress, followed by 4 years in Omsk prison
Jan 16 Henry Halleck a United States Army officer, scholar, and lawyer. A noted expert in military studies, he was known by a nickname that became derogatory, "Old Brains." He was an important participant in the admission of California as a state and became a successful lawyer and land developer. Early in the American Civil War, he was a senior Union Army commander in the Western Theater and then served for almost two years as general-in-chief of all U.S. armies. Halleck became chief of staff to Gen. Ulysses Grant, when he assumed the position of general-in-chief
Jan 17 Max Pressler a German forester noted for his inventions and writing.
Jan 18 Constantin von Tischendorf a world leading Biblical scholar at his time. He discovered the worlds oldest and most complete bible from 325 AD in 1844, with complete New Testament not discovered before. This bible is called Codex Sinaiticus, after the St Catherine Monastery, where Tischendorf discovered it and can be seen either in the British Library in London, or as a digitalised version in the internet. Tischendorf was made an Honorary Doctor by Oxford University 16.3.1865, and an Honorary Doctor by Cambridge University on 9.3.1865 following this find of the century. As student he gained his academic degree and international recognition when he deciphered the Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, a 5th-century Greek manuscript of the New Testament, in the 1840s
Jan 18 Warren De la Rue a British astronomer and chemist, most famous for his pioneering work in astronomical photography.
Jan 21 Daniel McCallum a railroad engineer, general manager of the New York and Erie Railroad and Union Major General during the American Civil War, known as one of early pioneers of management. He set down a set of general principles of management, and is credited for having developed the first modern organizational chart
Jan 21 John Bingham an American Republican congressman from the U.S. state of Ohio, judge advocate in the trial of the Abraham Lincoln assassination and a prosecutor in the impeachment trials of Andrew Johnson. He is also the principal framer of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Jan 28 Andrew Jackson Hamilton a United States politician during the third quarter of the 19th century. He was a lawyer, state representative, military governor of Texas, as well as the 11th Governor of Texas during Reconstruction
Jan 31 Pedro Diez Canseco a Peruvian soldier and politician who became interim President of Peru on three occasions: 1863, 1865 and 1868. He was the brother of Francisco Diez Canseco, and a great-grandfather of Fernando Belaunde Terry
Feb 2 Nathaniel McLean a lawyer, farmer, and Union general during the American Civil War.
Feb 3 Edward James Roye served as the fifth President of Liberia from 1870 to his overthrow in 1871 and subsequent violent death. He had previously served as the 4th Chief Justice of Liberia from 1865 until 1868. He was the first member of Liberia's True Whig Party to serve as President
Feb 4 Josip Juraj Strossmayer a Croatian politician, Roman Catholic bishop and benefactor.
Feb 8 Erskine May 1st Baron Farnborough a British constitutional theorist. This derived from his career at the House of Commons
Feb 9 Raffaele Cadorna an Italian general who served as one of the major Piedmontese leaders responsible for the unification of Italy during the mid-19th century.
Feb 12 Federico de Madrazo a Spanish painter.
Feb 13 Rufus Wilmot Griswold an American anthologist, editor, poet, and critic. Born in Vermont, Griswold left home when he was 15 years old. He worked as a journalist, editor, and critic in Philadelphia, New York City, and elsewhere. He built up a strong literary reputation, in part due to his 1842 collection The Poets and Poetry of America. This anthology, the most comprehensive of its time, included what he deemed the best examples of American poetry. He produced revised versions and similar anthologies for the remainder of his life, although many of the poets he promoted have since faded into obscurity. Many writers hoped to have their work included in one of these editions, although they commented harshly on Griswold's abrasive character. Griswold was married three times: his first wife died young, his second marriage ended in a public and controversial divorce, and his third wife left him after the previous divorce was almost repealed
Feb 15 Germain Sommeiller a civil engineer from Savoy. He directed the construction of the Fréjus Rail Tunnel between France and Italy, also known as the Mont Cenis Tunnel. This was the first of a series of major tunnels built in the late 19th century to connect northern and southern Europe through the Alps. Sommeiller pioneered the use of pneumatic drilling and dynamite to achieve record-breaking excavation speeds. This 12.8-km tunnel was completed on December 26, 1870, 11 years ahead of schedule. It remained the longest tunnel in the world until the opening of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel in 1882
Feb 18 Jan August Hendrik Leys a Belgian painter and printmaker, who was a leading representative of the historical or Romantic school and a pioneer of the Realist movement in Belgium.
Feb 21 Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier a French Classicist painter and sculptor famous for his depictions of Napoleon, his armies and military themes. He documented sieges and manoeuvres and was the teacher of Édouard Detaille
Feb 23 Franz Antoine an Austrian horticulturalist and gardener.
Mar 2 Jakob Dont an Austrian violinist, composer, and teacher.
Mar 4 Mykhailo Verbytsky a Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest and composer. He is considered to be one of the first professional Ukrainian composers of Halychyna. Verbystky is known for composing an alternate melody to the song Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy , which later became the national anthem of Ukraine. His first name is sometimes translated to the English version of Michael, Polish Michal, Russian and other languages
Mar 4 Myrtilla Miner an American educator and abolitionist whose school for African American girls, established against considerable opposition, grew to a successful and long-lived teachers institution.
Mar 5 John Wentworth (Illinois) the editor of the Chicago Democrat, publisher of an extensive Wentworth family genealogy, a two-term mayor of Chicago, and a six-term member of the United States House of Representatives, both before and after his service as mayor.
Mar 6 Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov a Russian poet and author of the famous fairy-tale poem The Little Humpbacked Horse.
Mar 8 Jean-Delphin Alard a French violinist and composer. He was the son-in-law of Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume, and had Pablo de Sarasate amongst his students
Mar 9 David Davis (Supreme Court justice) a United States Senator from Illinois and associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. He also served as Abraham Lincoln's campaign manager at the 1860 Republican National Convention, along with Ward Hill Lamon, one of Lincoln's former law partners who served as the President's primary bodyguard during the Civil War. Davis and Lamon, along with another Lincoln associate, Leonard Swett, helped engineer Lincoln's nomination
Mar 12 Louis-Jules Trochu a French military leader and politician. He served as President of the Government of National Defense—France's de facto head of state—from 4 September 1870 until his resignation on 22 January 1871
Mar 13 Samuel Benjamin Sofer one of the leading rabbis of Hungarian Jewry in the second half of the nineteenth century and rosh yeshiva of the famed Pressburg Yeshiva. His official German name was Samuel Wolf Schreiber
Mar 13 James Curtis Hepburn a physician, translator, educator and lay Christian missionary. He is known for the Hepburn romanization system for transliteration of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet, which he popularized in his Japanese–English dictionary
Mar 16 William Reeves (bishop) an Irish antiquarian and the Church of Ireland Bishop of Down, Connor and Dromore from 1886 until his death. He was the last private keeper of the Book of Armagh and at the time of his death was President of the Royal Irish Academy
Mar 22 Franz Eilhard Schulze a German anatomist and zoologist born in Eldena, near Greifswald.
Mar 26 Gustav Rümelin a German statistician, pedagogue and author.
Mar 28 Arsène Houssaye born at Bruyères , near Laon. His real surname was Housset
Mar 29 Costache Caragiale a Romanian actor and theatre manager who had an important role in the development of the Romanian theatre.
Mar 30 Hermann Schmid an Austrian writer and theatre director.
Apr 1 Otto von Bismarck a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871 he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to preserve German hegemony in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. For historian Eric Hobsbawm, it was Bismarck, who "remained undisputed world champion at the game of multilateral diplomatic chess for almost twenty years after 1871, devoted himself exclusively, and successfully, to maintaining peace between the powers."
Apr 1 Edward Clark (governor) the eighth Governor of Texas. His term coincided with the beginning of the American Civil War
Apr 6 Robert Volkmann a German composer.
Apr 8 Andrew Graham (astronomer) an Irish astronomer/computer.
Apr 17 August Schenk an Austrian-born, German botanist and paleobotanist.
Apr 17 Princess Therese of Nassau-Weilburg a member of the House of Nassau-Weilburg and a Princess of Nassau-Weilburg by birth. Through her marriage to Duke Peter of Oldenburg, Therese was also a member of the House of Holstein-Gottorp and a Duchess of Oldenburg
Apr 19 Daniel Bashiel Warner served as the 3rd President of Liberia from 1864 to 1868. Prior to this, he served as the 5th Vice President of Liberia under President Stephen Allen Benson from 1860 to 1864, and as the 3rd Secretary of State in the cabinet of Joseph Jenkins Roberts from 1854 to 1856
Apr 20 Jørgen Matthias Christian Schiødte a Danish entomologist. He was Professor at University of Copenhagen Zoological Museum