Born in 1817

Jan 2 François Chabas a French egyptologist.
Jan 8 Theophilus Shepstone a British South African statesman who was responsible for the annexation of the Transvaal to Britain in 1877.
Jan 10 Gustav Wilhelm Körber a German lichenologist.
Jan 26 Jean-Baptiste André Godin a French industrialist, writer and political theorist, and social innovator. A manufacturer of cast-iron stoves and influenced by Charles Fourier, he developed and built an industrial and residential community within Guise called the Familistère. He ultimately converted it to cooperative ownership and management by workers
Feb 1 Ezequiel Zamora a Venezuelan soldier and leader of the Federalists in the Federal War of 1859-1863. His life was marked by the romanticism that characterized liberals of the time
Feb 3 Émile Prudent a French pianist and composer. His works number about seventy, and include a piano trio, a concerto-symphony, many character pieces, sets of variations, transcriptions and etudes, in addition to his celebrated fantasies on operatic airs. As a teacher, he was very successful and produced several distinguished pupils
Feb 3 Achille Ernest Oscar Joseph Delesse a French geologist and mineralogist.
Feb 6 August Kindermann a German bass-baritone singer and regisseur, particularly noted for his performances in the operas of Richard Wagner. He began his career singing in the chorus of the Berlin State Opera in 1836 and made his solo debut there in 1837 in a small role in Spontini's Agnes von Hohenstaufen. He went on to sing bass and baritone roles with Leipzig Opera from 1839 to 1846. While at Leipzig, he became a friend of Albert Lortzing and sang in the premieres of two of his operas: the title role in Hans Sachs and Count von Eberbach in Der Wildschütz. He also sang Gazna in the premiere of Robert Schumann's secular oratorio Das Paradies und die Peri. In 1846, Kinderman moved to the Bavarian State Opera in Munich where he was a Kammersänger and stage director who enjoyed great popularity. In 1855, he directed the company's production of Wagner's Tannhäuser as well as singing the role of Wolfram. During his time in Munich he sang the role of Wotan in the premieres of both Das Rheingold and Die Walküre as well as Titurel in the premiere of Parsifal. In addition to the Wagner premieres, Kindermann also sang Count Eckart in the premiere of Josef Rheinberger's opera Die sieben Raben. August Kinderman's daughters, Franziska Kindermann, Hedwig Reicher-Kindermann, and Marie Kindermann also became opera singers
Feb 7 Ágoston Trefort a Hungarian politician, who served as Minister of Religion and Education from 1872 until his death. He was the President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1885
Feb 8 Richard S. Ewell a career United States Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. He achieved fame as a senior commander under Stonewall Jackson and Robert Lee and fought effectively through much of the war, but his legacy has been clouded by controversies over his actions at the Battle of Gettysburg and at the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
Feb 12 Jean Jules Linden a Belgian botanist and explorer, horticulturist and businessman, specialising in orchids, on which subject he wrote a number of books.
Feb 15 Charles-François Daubigny considered an important precursor of Impressionism.
Feb 17 Édouard Thilges a Luxembourgish politician. He was the seventh Prime Minister of Luxembourg, serving for over three years, from 20 February 1885 until 22 September 1888
Feb 18 Lewis Armistead a Confederate brigadier general in the American Civil War, who was wounded, captured, and died after Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Feb 18 Johannes Bosboom a Dutch painter and watercolorist of the Hague School, known especially for his paintings of church interiors.
Feb 19 William III of the Netherlands King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890. He was also the Duke of Limburg from 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866
Feb 21 José Zorrilla a Spanish Romantic poet and dramatist.
Feb 22 Niels Gade a Danish composer, conductor, violinist, organist and teacher. He is considered the most important Danish musician of his day
Feb 22 Carl Wilhelm Borchardt a German mathematician.
Feb 23 George Frederic Watts a popular English Victorian painter and sculptor associated with the Symbolist movement. He said "I paint ideas, not things." Watts became famous in his lifetime for his allegorical works, such as Hope and Love and Life. These paintings were intended to form part of an epic symbolic cycle called the "House of Life", in which the emotions and aspirations of life would all be represented in a universal symbolic language
Feb 24 Heinrich Eduard von Lade a German banker and amateur astronomer.
Feb 24 Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot a French general. Ducrot served in Algeria, in the Italian campaign of 1859, and as a division commander in the Franco-Prussian War
Feb 28 Ryszard Wincenty Berwiński a noted Polish poet, translator, folklorist, and nationalist.
Mar 1 Giovanni Duprè an Italian sculptor, of distant French stock long settled in Tuscany, who developed a reputation second only to that of his contemporary Lorenzo Bartolini.
Mar 2 János Arany a Hungarian journalist, writer, poet, and translator. He is often said to be the "Shakespeare of ballads" – he wrote more than 40 ballads which have been translated into over 50 languages, as well as the Toldi trilogy, to mention his most famous works
Mar 4 Edwards Pierrepont a popular American attorney, jurist, and orator. Having graduated from Yale in 1837, Pierrepont studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1840. During the American Civil War, Pierrepont was a Democrat, although he supported President Abraham Lincoln. Pierrepont supported President Andrew Johnson's conservative Reconstruction efforts having opposed the Radical Republicans. In both 1868 and 1872, Pierrepont supported Ulysses Grant for President. For his support, President Grant appointed Pierrepont New York Attorney in 1869. In 1871, Pierrepont gained the reputation as a solid reformer, having joined New York's Committee of Seventy that shut down Boss Tweed's corrupt Tammany Hall. In 1872, Pierrepont modified his views on Reconstruction and stated that African American freedman's rights needed to be protected
Mar 5 Austen Henry Layard an English traveller, archaeologist, cuneiformist, art historian, draughtsman, collector, author, politician and diplomat, best known as the excavator of Nimrud and of Niniveh, where he uncovered in 1851 the library of Ashurbanipal.
Mar 6 Princess Clémentine of Orléans the sixth child of ten and youngest daughter of Louis-Philippe I, King of the French, and his wife Marie Amalie of the Two Sicilies. She was the mother of Ferdinand I, Tsar of Bulgaria
Mar 17 Pasquale Stanislao Mancini an Italian jurist and statesman.
Mar 17 Auguste Gendron a French painter.
Mar 19 Jozef Miloslav Hurban a leader of the Slovak National Council and the Slovak Uprising in 1848/1849, a Slovak writer, journalist, politician, organizer of Slovak cultural life and a Protestant priest. He first supported Ján Kollár, but later turned to Ľudovít Štúr. His son Svetozár Hurban-Vajanský followed his father's footsteps both as a writer and nationalist
Mar 21 Joseph Poelaert a Belgian architect.
Mar 22 Braxton Bragg a career United States Army officer, and then a general in the Confederate States Army—a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War and later the military adviser to the Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
Mar 23 Louis Ferdinand Alfred Maury a French scholar and physician, important because his ideas about the interpretation of dreams and the effect of external stimuli on dreams pre-dated those of Sigmund Freud. He is mentioned by Freud in The Interpretation of Dreams, and by Sebastian Faulks in Human Traces. He coined the term hypnagogic hallucination and reported a dream that famously inspired Salvador Dalí's painting Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening. Alfred Maury was contemporary with Hervey de Saint Denys and the two dream researchers were in disagreement with each other
Mar 25 Jean-Marie Le Bris a French aviator, born in Concarneau, Brittany, who accomplished a glider flight in December 1856.
Mar 26 Wilhelm Roser a German surgeon and ophthalmologist. He was born in Stuttgart and died in Marburg
Mar 27 Carl Nägeli a Swiss botanist. He studied cell division and pollination but became known as the man who discouraged Gregor Mendel from further work on genetics
Mar 28 Francesco de Sanctis a leading Italian literary critic and scholar of Italian language and literature during the 19th century.
Apr 2 Teodulo Mabellini an Italian composer.
Apr 7 Francesco Selmi an Italian chemist and patriot, one of the founders of colloid chemistry.
Apr 7 Hermann von Rosenberg a German naturalist born in Darmstadt. He published a few books and several articles concerning his work in the East Indies. In these he describes the geography, zoology, linguistics and ethnography of the islands
Apr 8 Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard now called Brown-Séquard syndrome.
Apr 10 Konstantin Aksakov a Russian critic and writer, one of the earliest and most notable Slavophiles. He wrote plays, social criticism, and histories of the ancient Russian social order. His father Sergey Aksakov was a writer, and his younger brother Ivan Aksakov was a journalist
Apr 14 Georg von Kameke a Prussian General of the Infantry and Minister of War.
Apr 17 Rudolf Eitelberger an art historian and the first Ordinarius for art history at the University of Vienna. He is considered as the founder of the Vienna School of Art History
Apr 24 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac a Swiss chemist whose work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei and whose study of the rare earth elements led to his discovery of ytterbium in 1878 and codiscovery of gadolinium in 1880.
Apr 25 Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville a French printer and bookseller who lived in Paris. He invented the earliest known sound recording device, the phonautograph, which was patented in France on 25 March 1857
Apr 29 Vincent Count Benedetti a French diplomat. He is probably best known as one of the central figures in the instigation of the Franco-Prussian War
May 1 Karl Isidor Beck an Austrian poet.
May 4 Florian Ceynowa a doctor, political activist, writer, and linguist. He undertook efforts to identify Kashubian language, culture and traditions. He and Alexander Hilferding were not the only ones to study the language and legends of the Kashubians, but they had the greatest influence and prompted others to take up investigations. The individual nature of the Kashubian character and language was first described by Hilferding, to whom we are indebted for the first data about the range of Kashubian dialects. In 1856, he and Ceynowa traveled to the Kashubia. He awakened Kashubian self-identity, thereby opposing Germanisation and Prussian authority, and Polish nobility and clergy. He believed in a separate Kashubian identity and strove for a Russian-led pan-Slavic federation. He strove to create a program aimed at the introduction of a Kashubian standard in grammar, pronunciation and spelling, based on the spirit of the 1848 Revolution. He compiled treatises on Kashubian grammar, and published Kashubian texts along with their translations into other Slavic languages. An important person for Kashubian literature, he was also a translator of Russian texts into Kashubian language