Born in 1819

Jan 1 Philip Schaff a Swiss-born, German-educated Protestant theologian and a Church historian who spent most of his adult life living and teaching in the United States.
Jan 1 George Foster Shepley (Maine and Louisiana) a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was appointed military and 18th Governor of Louisiana by General Benjamin Butler in June 1862. He later served as a United States federal judge
Jan 1 Arthur Hugh Clough an English poet, an educationalist, and the devoted assistant to ground-breaking nurse Florence Nightingale. He was the brother of suffragist Anne Clough, who became principal of Newnham College, Cambridge
Jan 3 Charles Piazzi Smyth Astronomer Royal for Scotland from 1846 to 1888, well known for many innovations in astronomy and his pyramidological and metrological studies of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Jan 6 Arthur Bell Nicholls best known as the husband of the English novelist Charlotte Brontë.
Jan 6 Baldassare Verazzi an Italian painter.
Jan 9 James Francis the 9th Premier of Victoria. Francis was born in London, and emigrated to Van Diemen's Land in 1847, where he became a businessman. He moved to Victoria in 1853 and became a leading Melbourne merchant. He was a director of the Bank of New South Wales and president of the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce. He married Mary Ogilvie and had eight sons and seven daughters
Jan 10 Pierre Édouard Frère French painter, studied under Paul Delaroche, entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1836 and exhibited first at the Salon in 1843. The marked sentimental tendency of his art makes us wonder at John Ruskin's enthusiastic eulogy which finds in Frère's work the depth of William Wordsworth, the grace of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and the holiness of Fra Angelico. What we can admire in his work is his accomplished craftsmanship and the intimacy and tender homeliness of his conception. Among his chief works are the two paintings, Going to School and Coming from School, The Little Glutton and L'Exercice. A journey to Egypt in 1860 resulted in a small series of Orientalist subjects, but the majority of Frère's paintings deal with the life of the kitchen, the workshop, the dwellings of the humble, and mainly with the pleasures and little troubles of the young, which the artist brings before us with humor and sympathy. He was one of the most popular painters of domestic genre in the middle of the 19th century
Jan 11 Francis Xavier Seelos a German-American Roman Catholic priest and Redemptorist missionary.
Jan 12 Zealous Bates Tower an American soldier and civil engineer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was most noted for constructing the solid defenses of Federal-occupied Nashville, Tennessee, which proved to withstand repeated attacks by the Confederates
Jan 12 Bogdan Willewalde a Russian artist, academic, emeritus Professor of military art, and a fellow of the Imperial Academy of Arts.
Jan 14 Dimitrie Bolintineanu a Romanian poet , diplomat, politician, and a participant in the revolution of 1848. He was of Macedonian Aromanian origins. His many poems, of nationalist overtone, fueled emotions during the unification of Wallachia and Moldavia
Jan 14 Fabio Campana an Italian composer, opera director, conductor, and singing teacher who composed eight operas which premiered between 1838 and 1869. He was born in Livorno, the city where his first two operas premiered, but in the early 1850s he settled in London. There he opened a famous singing school, conducted concerts, and continued his reputation as a prolific and popular composer of art songs and concert arias. His last opera, Esmeralda, premiered in Saint Petersburg in 1869, followed by London performances in 1870 with Adelina Patti in the title role. Campana died in London at the age of 63. Although his operas are no longer performed, his art songs can be heard on several modern recordings
Jan 18 Henriette Nissen-Saloman a Swedish opera singer and singing pedagogue.
Jan 19 William Powell Frith an English painter specialising in genre subjects and panoramic narrative works of life in the Victorian era. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1853, presenting The Sleeping Model as his Diploma work. He has been described as the "greatest British painter of the social scene since Hogarth"
Jan 22 Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle an Italian writer and art critic.
Jan 25 Ernest Charles Jones an English poet, novelist, and Chartist.
Jan 31 Jean-Augustin Barral a French agronomist and balloonist.
Feb 8 John Ruskin the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, also an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects ranging from geology to architecture, myth to ornithology, literature to education, and botany to political economy. His writing styles and literary forms were equally varied. Ruskin penned essays and treatises, poetry and lectures, travel guides and manuals, letters and even a fairy tale. The elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art was later superseded by a preference for plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively. In all of his writing, he emphasised the connections between nature, art and society. He also made detailed sketches and paintings of rocks, plants, birds, landscapes, and architectural structures and ornamentation
Feb 8 Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Jordan a German writer and politician.
Feb 8 Hermann Heinrich Ploss a German gynecologist and anthropologist. He was full professor at the medical faculty of the University of Leipzig
Feb 8 Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein a Polish noblewoman who pursued a forty-year liaison/relationship with Franz Liszt. She was also an amateur journalist and essayist and it is conjectured that she did much of the actual writing of several of Liszt's publications, especially his Life of Chopin. She pursued an enormous correspondence with Liszt and many others which is of vital historical interest. She admired and encouraged Hector Berlioz, as is clear from their extensive correspondence. Berlioz dedicated Les Troyens to Princess Carolyne. She was portrayed by Capucine in the 1960 film Song Without End
Feb 11 Samuel Parkman Tuckerman an American composer.
Feb 12 Frederick Carter a lawyer and Premier of Newfoundland from 1865 to 1870. He was son of Peter Weston Carter and great-grandson of Robert Carter, who was then appointed justice of the peace at Ferryland in 1750. In 1855, he was elected to the House of Assembly as a Conservative and was Speaker from 1861 until 1865. In 1865 he succeeded Sir Hugh Hoyles as Premier
Feb 13 James Cockburn (politician) a Canadian Conservative politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation.
Feb 13 Francis Smith (Australian politician) a British lawyer, judge and politician, who was the fourth Premier of Tasmania from 12 May 1857 until 1 November 1860.
Feb 14 Christopher Latham Sholes an American inventor who invented the first practical typewriter and the QWERTY keyboard still in use today. He was also a newspaper publisher and Wisconsin politician
Feb 17 Philipp Jaffé a German historian and philologist. The Schwersenz native, despite discrimination against his Jewish religion, was one of the most important German medievalists of the 19th century
Feb 20 Alfred Escher a Swiss politician, business leader and railways pioneer. Thanks to his numerous political posts and his significant role in the foundation and management of the Swiss Northeastern Railway, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Credit Suisse, Swiss Life and the Gotthard Railway, Escher had an unmatched influence on Switzerland’s political and economic development in the 19th century
Feb 22 James Russell Lowell an American Romantic poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets who rivaled the popularity of British poets. These poets usually used conventional forms and meters in their poetry, making them suitable for families entertaining at their fireside
Feb 23 Julius Roger a German medical doctor, entomologist and folklorist who worked in Ratibor, in Upper Silesia, most notable for having arranged to build hospitals in Groß Rauden, Pilchowitz, plus the current public hospital in Rybnik.
Mar 1 Władysław Taczanowski a Polish zoologist.
Mar 1 François-Marie-Benjamin Richard born at Nantes, Loire-Atlantique.
Mar 2 Alois Emanuel Biedermann a Swiss Protestant theologian. He was a prominent dogmatician of the so-called "Young Hegelian" school of thought, and an important advocate of "free Christianity" in Switzerland
Mar 3 Gustave de Molinari a political economist and classical liberal theorist born in Belgium associated with French laissez-faire economists such as Frédéric Bastiat and Hippolyte Castille. Living in Paris, in the 1840s, he took part in the Ligue pour la Liberté des Échanges , animated by Frédéric Bastiat. On his death bed in 1850, Bastiat described Molinari as the continuator of his works. In 1849, shortly after the revolutions of the previous year, Molinari published two works: an essay, "The Production of Security", and a book, Les Soirées de la Rue Saint-Lazare, describing how a market in justice and protection could advantageously replace the state
Mar 4 Narcyza Żmichowska a Polish novelist and poet. She is considered a precursor of feminism in Poland
Mar 6 Émile Blanchard a French zoologist and entomologist.
Mar 11 Henry Tate an English sugar merchant and philanthropist, noted for establishing the Tate Gallery, London.
Mar 14 Erik Edlund a Swedish physicist. His scientific research was confined chiefly to the theory of electricity. He helped secure the introduction of weather stations to Sweden
Mar 17 Alecu Russo a Moldavian Romanian writer, literary critic and publicist.
Mar 24 Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs a German pathologist born in Aurich.
Mar 26 Prince George Duke of Cambridge a member of the British Royal Family, a male-line grandson of King George III, cousin of Queen Victoria, and maternal uncle of Queen Mary, consort of King George The Duke was an army officer by profession and served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces from 1856 to 1895. He became Duke of Cambridge in 1850 and Field Marshal in 1862. Deeply devoted to the old Army, he worked with the Queen to defeat or minimize every reform proposal, such as setting up a general staff. His Army became a moribund and stagnant institution, lagging far behind France and Germany. Its weaknesses were dramatically revealed by the poor organization at the start of the Second Boer War
Mar 28 Roger Fenton a pioneering British photographer, one of the first war photographers.
Mar 28 Joseph Bazalgette a 19th-century English civil engineer. As chief engineer of London's Metropolitan Board of Works his major achievement was the creation of a sewer network for central London which was instrumental in relieving the city from cholera epidemics, while beginning the cleansing of the River Thames
Mar 29 Edwin Drake an American oil driller, popularly credited with being the first to drill for oil in the United States.
Mar 31 Chlodwig Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst a German statesman, who served as Chancellor of Germany and Prime Minister of Prussia from 1894 to 1900. Prior to his appointment as Chancellor, he had served in a number of other positions, including as Prime Minister of Bavaria , German Ambassador to Paris , Foreign Secretary and Imperial Lieutenant of Alsace-Lorraine. He was regarded as one of the most prominent liberal politicians of his time in Germany
Apr 1 Vikramatji Khimojiraj the ruler of Princely State of Porbandar belonging to Jethwa Rajput dynasty.
Apr 4 Maria II of Portugal Queen regnant of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1826 to 1828 and again from 1834 to 1853. She was a member of the House of Braganza
Apr 5 Heinrich Christian Schwan a German Lutheran pastor, served as a missionary in Brazil, a pastor in Cleveland, Ohio, and Central District President and General President in the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. Schwan is credited with being the first pastor to erect a Christmas tree in an American church sanctuary and is also known for the Missouri Synod's first exposition of Martin Luther's Small Catechism
Apr 7 Hubert Léonard a famous Belgian violinist, born at Bellaire, Liège. His earliest preparatory training was given by Rouma, after which he entered the Paris Conservatory in 1836, where he studied for three years under Habeneck. In 1844 he started his extended tours which established his reputation as one of the greatest of virtuosos. From 1848 to 1867 he held the position of principal professor of violin playing at the Conservatory of Brussels, having succeeded the celebrated de Bériot. Owing to ill health, he resigned and settled in Paris where he taught private lessons. Among his notable students are Alfred De Sève, Martin Pierre Marsick, Henri Marteau, Henry Schradieck, and César Thomson. He wrote a notably instructive work titled Ecole Léonard. Léonard died in Paris in 1890