Born in 1821

Jan 3 Karel Dežman a Carniolan liberal politician and natural scientist. He was one of the most prominent personalities of the political, cultural, and scientific developments in the 19th century Duchy of Carniola. He is considered one of the fathers of modern archeology in what is today Slovenia. He also made important contributions in botany, zoology, mineralogy, geology and mineralogy. He was the first director of the Provincial Museum of Carniola, now the National Museum of Slovenia. Due to his switch from Slovene liberal nationalism to Austrian centralism and pro-German cultural stances, he became a symbol of national renegadism
Jan 8 James Longstreet one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse." He served under Lee as a corps commander for many of the famous battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Eastern Theater, but also with Gen. Braxton Bragg in the Army of Tennessee in the Western Theater. Biographer and historian Jeffry Wert wrote that "Longstreet... was the finest corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia; in fact, he was arguably the best corps commander in the conflict on either side."
Jan 10 Janko Matúška a Slovak poet, activist, occasional playwright, and clerk of the court. He is best known as the author of the Slovak national anthem, Nad Tatrou sa blýska based on melody of Slovak folk song Kopala studienku
Jan 10 Duchess Caroline Mariane of Mecklenburg a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz who became The Crown Princess of Denmark as the second spouse of the future king Frederick VII of Denmark.
Jan 12 Nikolay Afanasyev (composer) an Imperial Russian violin virtuoso and composer. His memoirs 'Vospominaniya' appeared in 1890, and recorded his experiences as a touring musician, as part of a panorama of Russian musical life during the mid 19th century. He became an honorary member of the Russian Musical Society in 1896
Jan 14 Salomon Hermann Mosenthal a writer, dramatist, and poet of German-Jewish descent who spent much of his life in Austria. He was also known for his opera libretti
Jan 15 Lafayette McLaws a United States Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He served at Antietam and Fredericksburg, where Robert Lee praised his defense of Marye's Heights, and at Gettysburg, where his division made successful assaults through the Peach Orchard and Wheatfield, but was unable to dislodge Union forces from Cemetery Ridge. After the Knoxville Campaign, he was court-martialed for inefficiency, though this was overturned for procedural reasons. Finally he was sent to his native Georgia to resist Sherman's March to the Sea, but had to retreat through the Carolinas, losing many men through desertion, and is presumed to have surrendered with Joseph Johnston in April 1865
Jan 16 John C. Breckinridge a lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of Kentucky. He represented the Commonwealth in both houses of Congress and in 1857, became the 14th and youngest-ever Vice President of the United States. Serving in the U.S. Senate at the outbreak of the Civil War, he was expelled after joining the Confederate Army. He remains the only Senator of the United States convicted of treason against the United States of America by the Senate. He was appointed Confederate Secretary of War late in the war. A member of the Breckinridge family, he was the grandson of U.S. Attorney General John Breckinridge, son of Kentucky Secretary of State Cabell Breckinridge and father of Arkansas Congressman Clifton Breckinridge
Jan 19 Ferdinand Gregorovius a German historian who specialized in the medieval history of Rome.
Jan 21 Vincențiu Babeș an ethnic Romanian lawyer, teacher, journalist and politician from the Banat, settled in Vienna, where he married Sophia Goldschneider in 1851.
Jan 27 John Chivington a former Methodist pastor who served as colonel in the United States Volunteers during the Colorado War and the New Mexico Campaigns of the American Civil War. In 1862, he was in the Battle of Glorieta Pass against a Confederate supply train
Feb 2 Wilhelm Ihne a German historian who was a native of Fürth. He was the father of architect Ernst von Ihne
Feb 3 Karl Wilhelm Gottlieb Leopold Fuckel a German botanist who worked largely on fungi.
Feb 3 Elizabeth Blackwell the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, as well as the first woman on the UK Medical Register. She was the first openly identified woman to graduate from medical school, a pioneer in promoting the education of women in medicine in the United States, and a social and moral reformer in both the United States and in Britain. Her sister Emily was the third woman in the US to get a medical degree
Feb 6 Grigory Eliseev a Russian journalist, editor, and publisher.
Feb 11 Auguste Mariette a French scholar, archaeologist and Egyptologist, and founder of the Egyptian Department of Antiquities.
Feb 11 John Ross Browne an Irish-born American traveler, artist, writer and government agent.
Feb 11 Hermann Allmers a German poet.
Feb 14 Nikolay Shcherbina a Russian poet of the 19th century.
Feb 15 Camille Rousset a French historian. He taught at Grenoble before becoming a historian to the Ministry of War. He was elected to the Académie française in 1871
Feb 16 Heinrich Barth a German explorer of Africa and scholar.
Feb 17 Lola Montez an Irish dancer and actress who became famous as a "Spanish dancer", courtesan, mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, who made her Countess of Landsfeld. She used her influence to institute liberal reforms. At the start of the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, she was forced to flee. She proceeded to the United States via Switzerland, France and London, returning to her work as an entertainer and lecturer
Feb 19 August Schleicher a German linguist. His great work was A Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages, in which he attempted to reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European language. To show how Indo-European might have looked he created a short tale, Schleicher's fable, to exemplify the reconstructed vocabulary and aspects of Indo-European society inferred from it
Feb 19 Francis Preston Blair Jr. an American politician and Union Army general during the American Civil War. He represented Missouri in both the House of Representatives and the Senate, and he was the Democratic Party's nominee for Vice President in 1868
Feb 20 Nils Johan Andersson a Swedish botanist and traveller. This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation N.J.Andersson when citing a botanical name
Feb 21 Rachel Félix a French actress.
Feb 21 Robert Needham Cust a British colonial administrator and linguist. The son of Hon. & Rev. Henry Cockayne Cust and the brother of the Earl of Bromlow
Feb 21 Charles Scribner I a New Yorker who, with Isaac Baker , founded a publishing company that would eventually become Charles Scribner's Sons.
Feb 26 Félix Ziem a French painter in the style of the Barbizon School.
Mar 1 Joseph Hubert Reinkens the first German Old Catholic bishop.
Mar 8 James Sheridan Muspratt a research chemist and teacher. His most influential publication was his two-volume book Chemistry, Theoretical, Practical and Analytical as applied and relating to the Arts and Manufactures
Mar 11 Johan Hampus Furuhjelm a Finnish-Russian vice-admiral and explorer, commander of the Russian Baltic Fleet, Governor of the Russian Far East, Taganrog and Russian America.
Mar 12 John Abbott the third Prime Minister of Canada. He served in the office for seventeen months, from June 16, 1891 to November 24, 1892
Mar 12 Luitpold Prince Regent of Bavaria the de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, King Ludwig II and King Otto.
Mar 14 Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae a Danish archaeologist, historian and politician, who was the second director of the National Museum of Denmark. He played a key role in the foundation of scientific archaeology. Worsaae was the first to excavate and use stratigraphy to prove J. Thomsen's sequence of the Three-age system: Stone, Bronze, Iron. He was also a pioneer in the development of paleobotany through his excavation work in the peat bogs of Jutland. Worsaae served as Kultus Minister of Denmark for Christen Andreas Fonnesbech from 1874 to 1875
Mar 15 Johann Josef Loschmidt a notable Austrian scientist who performed ground-breaking work in chemistry, physics , and crystal forms.
Mar 16 Ernest-Aimé Feydeau a French writer and the father of the notorious comic playwright Georges Feydeau.
Mar 16 Eduard Heine a German mathematician.
Mar 19 Richard Francis Burton an English geographer, explorer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, Egyptologist and diplomat. He was known for his travels and explorations within Asia, Africa and the Americas, as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke 29 European, Asian and African languages
Mar 21 William Milligan a renowned Scottish theologian. He studied at the University of Halle in Germany, and eventually became a professor at the University of Aberdeen. He is best known for his commentary on the Revelation of John. He also wrote two other well-known books that are classics: The Resurrection of our Lord and The Ascension of our Lord
Mar 21 Medo Pucić a writer and politician from Dubrovnik, at the time in the Austro-Hungarian Kingdom of Dalmatia, who was prominent Serbian nationalist, believing that the religion was irrelevant for ethnic affiliation. He is the brother of Niko Pucić
Mar 21 Siegfried Kapper the literary pseudonym of Isaac Salomon Kapper , a Bohemian-born Austrian writer of Jewish origin. Born in Smichow, Kapper studied medicine at Prague University, later completing a Ph.D. at the University of Vienna. Kapper wrote excellent fairy tales and poems, and was one of the leading figures of Czech-Jewish assimilation. Kapper wrote in both German and Czech. He translated Mácha's Máj into German for the first time
Mar 21 Francisco Diez Canseco President of Peru for a brief period during 1872. He was the brother of General Pedro Diez Canseco
Mar 23 Aleksey Pisemsky a Russian novelist and dramatist who was regarded as an equal of Ivan Turgenev and Fyodor Dostoyevsky in the late 1850s, but whose reputation suffered a spectacular decline after his fall-out with Sovremennik magazine in the early 1860s. A realistic playwright, along with Aleksandr Ostrovsky he was responsible for the first dramatization of ordinary people in the history of Russian theatre. D.S. Mirsky said: "Pisemsky's great narrative gift and exceptionally strong grip on reality make him one of the best Russian novelists."
Mar 24 Mathilde Marchesi a German mezzo-soprano, a renowned teacher of singing, and a proponent of the bel canto vocal method.
Mar 25 Robert Bentley (botanist) an English botanist. He is perhaps best remembered today for the four-volume Medicinal Plants, published in 1880 with Henry Trimen and containing over three hundred hand-colored plates by botanist David Blair
Mar 26 Ernst Engel a German statistician and economist, famous for the Engel curve and the Engel's law.
Mar 26 Simon Binnendijk a Dutch gardener and botanist.
Mar 29 Frank Leslie an English-born American engraver, illustrator, and publisher of family periodicals.
Mar 29 Karl Knies a German economist of the historical school of economics, best known as the author of Political Economy from the Standpoint of the Historical Method. Knies taught at the University of Heidelberg for over 30 years, and was perhaps the most theoretically-oriented economist of the older historical school