Died in 1821

Jan 4 Elizabeth Ann Seton the first native-born citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. She established the first Catholic school in the nation, at Emmitsburg, Maryland, where she founded the first American congregation of religious sisters, the Sisters of Charity
Jan 12 Sir John Macpherson 1st Baronet a Scottish administrator in India. He was the acting Governor-General of India from 1785 to 1786
Jan 14 Jens Zetlitz a Norwegian priest and poet.
Jan 19 Thomas Willing an American merchant, a Delegate to the Continental Congress from Pennsylvania and the first president of the First National Bank of the United States.
Jan 31 Antonio Doria Pamphili an Italian Cardinal from a prominent Neapolitan noble family of Genoese heritage. As protodeacon, he announced the election of cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti election at the end of the conclave of 1800 as Pope Pius VII
Feb 13 Jean-Jacques Lagrenée a French history painter and engraver. With his elder brother Louis-Jean-François Lagrenée, he stayed in Russia then at the Académie de Rome
Feb 14 Petru Maior considered one of the most influential personalities of the Age of Enlightenment in Transylvania. Maior was a member of the Greek-Catholic clergy, a historian, philosopher, and linguist
Feb 21 Georg Friedrich von Martens a German jurist and diplomat. Educated at the universities of Göttingen, Regensburg and Vienna, he became professor of jurisprudence at Göttingen in 1783 and was ennobled in 1789. He was made a counsellor of state by the elector of Hanover in 1808, and in 1810 was president of the financial section of the council of state of the kingdom of Westphalia. In 1814 he was appointed privy cabinet-councillor by the king of Hanover, and in 1816 went as representative of the king to the diet of the new German Confederation at Frankfort
Feb 23 John Keats an English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley despite his work having been in publication for only four years before his death
Feb 24 Marie-Anne Collot a French sculptor. She was the student and daughter-in-law of Etienne Falconet and is most well known as a portraitist, close to the philosophic and artistic circles of Diderot and Catherine the Great
Feb 26 Joseph de Maistre a Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat. He defended hierarchical societies and a monarchical State in the period immediately following the French Revolution. Maistre was a subject of the King of Piedmont-Sardinia, whom he served as member of the Savoy Senate , ambassador to Russia , and minister of state to the court in Turin
Feb 27 William I Elector of Hesse the eldest surviving son of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Mary of Great Britain, the daughter of George II.
Feb 27 Gottlieb Conrad Christian Storr a German physician, chemist and naturalist.
Mar 4 Princess Elizabeth of Clarence an infant member of the British royal family as the second daughter and third child of Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews and his wife , Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. She was a granddaughter of King George III of the United Kingdom and a first cousin of Queen Victoria
Mar 9 Nicholas Pocock a British artist best known for his many detailed paintings of naval battles during the age of sail.
Mar 13 John Hunter (Royal Navy officer) an officer of the Royal Navy, who succeeded Arthur Phillip as the second governor of New South Wales, Australia and served as such from 1795 to 1800.
Mar 14 William Robert Broughton a British naval officer in the late 18th century. As a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, he commanded HMS Chatham as part of the Vancouver Expedition, a voyage of exploration through the Pacific Ocean led by Captain George Vancouver in the early 1790s
Mar 15 Abraham Niclas Edelcrantz a Finnish born Swedish poet and inventor. He was a member of the Swedish Academy, chair 2, from 1786 to 1821
Mar 17 Louis-Marcelin de Fontanes a French poet and politician.
Mar 21 Michael Bryan (art historian) an English art historian, art dealer and connoisseur. He was involved in the purchase and resale of the great French Orleans Collection of art selling it on to a British syndicate, and owned a fashionable art gallery in Savile Row, London. His book, "Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters and Engravers", was a standard reference work throughout the 19th century, and was last republished in 1920; however it is now badly outdated
Mar 27 Jacek Małachowski a Polish nobleman, politician and administrator.
Apr 10 Gregory V of Constantinople Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1797 to 1798, from 1806 to 1808 and from 1818 to 1821. He was responsible for much restoration work to the Patriarchal Cathedral of St George, which had been badly damaged by fire in 1738. At the onset of the Greek War of Independence, as Ethnarch of the Orthodox Millet Gregory V was blamed by Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II for his inability to suppress the Greek uprising, even though he had actually condemned the Greek revolutionary activities. He was taken out of the Patriarchal Cathedral on Easter Sunday, 1821, directly after celebrating the solemn Easter Liturgy, and hanged for three days from the main gate of the Patriarchate compound by order of the Sultan; his body was then taken down and delivered to a squad of Jews who dragged it through the streets and finally threw it into the Bosphorus. The body was later recovered by Greek sailors and was eventually enshrined in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens. He is commemorated by the Orthodox Church as an Ethnomartyr
Apr 11 Georg Joseph Beer an Austrian ophthalmologist. He is credited with introducing a flap operation for treatment of cataracts , as well as popularizing the instrument used to perform the surgery
Apr 12 François Joseph de Gratet vicomte Dubouchage an artillery general, politician, and French Minister of Marine in 1792 and 1815, and Minister of Foreign Affairs 1792.
Apr 20 Franz Karl Achard a German chemist, physicist and biologist. His principal discovery was the production of sugar from sugar beets
Apr 23 Henry Edridge the son of a tradesman and apprenticed at the age of fifteen to William Pether, a mezzotint engraver and landscape painter, and became proficient as a painter of miniatures, portraits and landscapes.
Apr 23 Pierre de Ruel marquis de Beurnonville a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and later a marshal of France.
Apr 24 Johann Peter Frank a German physician and hygienist who was a native of Rodalben.
Apr 24 Athanasios Diakos a Greek military commander during the Greek War of Independence, considered a venerable national hero in Greece.
Apr 30 Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni a Romanian clergyman who served as Metropolitan of Moldavia , Metropolitan of Kherson and Crimea , Metropolitan of Kiev and Halych , Exarch of Moldo-Wallachia , and Archbishop of Chişinău , being the first head of the church in Bessarabia after the Russian annexation.
May 2 Hester Thrale a British diarist, author, and patron of the arts. Her diaries and correspondence are an important source of information about Samuel Johnson and 18th-century life
May 5 Napoleon a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815. He implemented a wide array of liberal reforms across Europe, as summarized by historian Andrew Roberts:
May 19 Camille Jordan (politician) a French politician born in Lyon of a well-to-do mercantile family.
May 26 Constance Mayer a French painter of portraits, allegorical subjects, miniatures and genre works. She had "a brilliant but bitter career."
Jun 6 Louis Claude Richard a French botanist and botanical illustrator.
Jun 7 Tudor Vladimirescu a Wallachian Romanian revolutionary hero, the leader of the Wallachian uprising of 1821 and of the Pandur militia. He is also known as Tudor din Vladimiri or — occasionally — as Domnul Tudor
Jun 14 Chaim of Volozhin an Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and ethicist. Popularly known as "Reb Chaim Volozhiner" or simply as "Reb Chaim", he was born in Volozhin when it was a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He died there while it was under the control of the Russian Empire. It is part of present-day Belarus
Jun 17 Martín Miguel de Güemes a military leader and popular caudillo who defended northwestern Argentina from the Spanish during the Argentine War of Independence.
Jun 23 Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre Duchess of Orléans the daughter of Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre and of Princess Maria Theresa Felicitas of Modena. At the death of her brother, Louis Alexandre de Bourbon-Penthièvre, prince de Lamballe, she became the wealthiest heiress in France prior to the French Revolution. She married Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, the "regicide" Philippe Égalité, and was the mother of France's last king, Louis Philippe I, King of the French. She was sister-in-law to the princesse de Lamballe, and was the last member of the Bourbon-Penthièvre family
Jun 25 Antoine Bullant a Czech musician and opera composer that worked first in France but primarily in Imperial Russia.
Jun 28 August Friedrich Schweigger a German naturalist born in Erlangen. He was the younger brother of scientist Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger
Jun 30 José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa a Spanish military officer and colonial administrator in America. From August 20, 1806 to July 7, 1816 he was viceroy of Peru, during the Spanish American wars of independence
Jul 4 Richard Cosway a leading English portrait painter of the Regency era, noted for his miniatures. He was a contemporary of John Smart, George Engleheart, William Wood, and Richard Crosse. His wife was the Italian-born painter Maria Cosway, a close friend of Thomas Jefferson
Aug 6 Antonio Bartolomeo Bruni an Italian violinist, composer and conductor. Bruni was born and died in Cuneo, Italy. During most of his life he resided, played and composed in Paris
Aug 7 Caroline of Brunswick Queen of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George IV from 29 January 1820 until her death in 1821. Between 1795 and 1820, she was Princess of Wales
Aug 19 Marie-Denise Villers a French painter, who specialized in portraits.
Aug 20 Dorothea von Medem born a Gräfin of the noble German Baltic Medem family and later became Duchess of Courland. Popularly known as Dorothea of Courland after her marriage to Peter von Biron, the last Duke of Courland, she hosted an aristocratic salon in Berlin and performed various diplomatic duties on behalf of her estranged husband
Aug 24 John William Polidori an English writer and physician. He is known for his associations with the Romantic movement and credited by some as the creator of the vampire genre of fantasy fiction. His most successful work was the 1819 short story, The Vampyre, the first published modern vampire story. Although originally and erroneously accredited to Lord Byron, both Byron and Polidori affirmed that the story is Polidori's
Aug 29 Horace Coignet a French amateur violinist, singer and composer. He was active in Lyons as a pattern-designer and dealer in embroidered goods, as an official clerk and as musical director of the city from 1794. He became the music instructor to the Duchesse d'Aumont in Paris , and later returned to Lyons where he served on the directorial board of the conservatory. He was known as a gifted violinist, and composed harpsichord pieces, romances, a set of Trois duos concertants de violon et fugues, a revolutionary hymn for the Rousseau celebration at Lyons and some theatrical music His most notable work the music for Jean-Jacques Rousseau's 1762 short play Pygmalion, first performed in Lyon in 1770 was a success and soon became known throughout Europe
Sep 1 Antoine Gouan a French naturalist who was a native of Montpellier. Gouan was a pioneer of Linnaean taxonomy in France