Born in 1822

Jan 2 Rudolf Clausius considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics. By his restatement of Sadi Carnot's principle known as the Carnot cycle, he put the theory of heat on a truer and sounder basis. His most important paper, On the Moving Force of Heat, published in 1850, first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. In 1870 he introduced the virial theorem which applied to heat
Jan 4 Georg Büchmann a German philologist. He was born in Berlin, and died there in Schöneberg
Jan 5 Kurd von Schlözer an imperial German historian, diplomat and German Ambassador to the United States from 1871 to 1882.
Jan 5 Joseph B. Kershaw a lawyer, judge, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War.
Jan 6 Heinrich Schliemann a German businessman and a pioneer of field archaeology. He was an advocate of the historical reality of places mentioned in the works of Homer. Schliemann was an archaeological excavator of Hissarlik, now presumed to be the site of Troy, along with the Mycenaean sites Mycenae and Tiryns. His work lent weight to the idea that Homer's Iliad and Virgil's Aeneid reflect actual historical events. Schliemann's excavation of nine levels of archaeological remains with dynamite has been criticized as destructive of significant historical artifacts, including the level that is believed to be the historical Troy
Jan 6 Menyhért Lónyay a Hungarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1871 to 1872.
Jan 7 Theodor Aufrecht a German indologist.
Jan 8 Carlo Alfredo Piatti an Italian cellist and renowned teacher.
Jan 9 Carol Benesch a Silesian architect of Historicism and Eclecticism orientation established in the Kingdom of Romania.
Jan 12 Étienne Lenoir a Belgian engineer who developed the internal combustion engine in 1858. Prior designs for such engines were patented as early as 1807, but none were commercially successful. Lenoir's engine was commercialized in sufficient quantities to be considered a success, a first for the internal combustion engine
Jan 15 Hubert Salentin a German painter, associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.
Jan 16 Henri d'Orléans Duke of Aumale a leader of the Orleanists, a political faction in 19th century France associated with constitutional monarchy. He was born in Paris, the fifth son of King Louis-Philippe and Marie Amalie of Bourbon-Sicilies. He used the title duc d'Aumale. He retired from public life in 1883
Jan 23 Regine Olsen a Danish woman who was engaged to the philosopher and theologian Søren Kierkegaard from September 1840 to October 1841. Regine's relationship with Kierkegaard exerted a crucial influence over his intellectual development, philosophy, and theology, and the legacy of their engagement figures prominently in his writings
Jan 23 Heinrich Brunn a German archaeologist. He was known for taking a scientific approach in his investigations of classical Greek and Roman art
Jan 25 Charles Reed Bishop a businessman and philanthropist in Hawaii, who married into the Hawaiian royal family. Born in Glens Falls, New York, he sailed to Hawaii in 1846 at the age of 24, and made his home there. Bishop was one of the first trustees of and a major donor to the Kamehameha Schools in Hawaii. He also founded the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, and founded Hawaii's first successful bank, which is now known as First Hawaiian Bank
Jan 25 William McDougall (politician) a Canadian lawyer, politician and one of the Fathers of Confederation.
Jan 26 Pavel Yakushkin a Russian author, ethnographer and folklore collector.
Jan 27 Max Wirth a German journalist and economist.
Jan 28 Alexander Mackenzie the second Prime Minister of Canada from November 7, 1873 to October 8, 1878.
Jan 29 Adelaide Ristori a distinguished Italian tragedienne, who was often referred to as the Marquise.
Jan 30 Ivan Turchaninov a Union army brigadier general in the American Civil War. He led two critical charges that saved the day at Chickamauga and was among the first to lead soldiers up Missionary Ridge
Jan 30 Franz Ritter von Hauer an Austrian geologist.
Feb 2 Alexander Palm a Russian poet, novelist and playwright, who wrote also under the pseudonym Alminsky. A member of the Petrashevsky Circle, Palm in 1847 was arrested, spent 8 months in the Petropavlovsk Fortress, had his death sentence changed to deportation and served 7 years in the Russian Army. Among his best known works are Alexey Slobodin. The History of One Family and Our Friend Neklyuzhev
Feb 8 Maxime Du Camp a French writer and photographer.
Feb 9 Francis Cadell (explorer) a European explorer of Australia, most remembered for opening the Murray River up for transport by steamship and for his activities as a slave trader.
Feb 10 Andrzej Kotula a Polish lawyer and activist from Cieszyn Silesia.
Feb 14 Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha the daughter of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág. Her father was the second son of Francis Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf
Feb 16 James Thomson (engineer) substantial though it is overshadowed by that of his younger brother William Thomson.
Feb 16 James Patton Anderson an American physician, lawyer, and politician, most notably serving as a United States Congressman from the Washington Territory, a Mississippi state legislator, and a delegate at the Florida state secession convention to withdraw from the United States.
Feb 16 Francis Galton an English Victorian progressive, polymath, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, psychometrician, and statistician. He was knighted in 1909
Feb 17 Georg Weerth a German writer. Weerth's poems celebrated the solidarity of the working class in its fight for liberation from exploitation and oppression. He was a friend and companion of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who described Georg Weerth as the first and most significant poet of the German proletariat
Feb 21 Richard Bourke 6th Earl of Mayo a statesman and prominent member of the British Conservative Party from Dublin, Ireland.
Feb 22 Adolph Kussmaul a German physician and a leading clinician of his time. He was born as the son and grandson of physicians at Graben near Karlsruhe and studied at Heidelberg. He entered the army after graduation and spent two years as an army surgeon. This was followed by a period as a general practitioner before he went to Würzburg to study for his doctorate under Virchow
Feb 23 Giovanni Battista de Rossi an Italian archaeologist, famous even outside his field for rediscovering early Christian catacombs.
Feb 25 Lev Mei a Russian dramatist and poet.
Feb 28 George Vasey (botanist) an English-born American botanist who collected a lot in Illinois before integrating the United States Department of Agriculture , where he became Chief Botanist and curator of the greatly expanded National Herbarium.
Mar 3 Eduard Ender an Austrian painter. He is the son of Johann Ender and is noted alike for his historical and genre works, among which are Francis I in the Studio of Cellini; Shakespeare Reading “Macbeth” before the Court of Elizabeth; La Corbeille de Mariage; and A Game of Chess
Mar 3 Bernhard Hammer a Swiss politician.
Mar 4 Jules Antoine Lissajous a French mathematician, after whom Lissajous figures are named. Among other innovations, Lissajous invented the Lissajous apparatus, a device that creates the figures that bear his name. In it, a beam of light is bounced off a mirror attached to a vibrating tuning fork, and then reflected off a second mirror attached to a perpendicularly oriented vibrating tuning fork , onto a wall, resulting in a Lissajous figure. This led to the invention of other apparatus such as the harmonograph
Mar 8 Ignacy Łukasiewicz a Polish pharmacist and petroleum industry pioneer who in 1856 built the world's first oil refinery. His achievements included the discovery of how to distill kerosene from seep oil, the invention of the modern kerosene lamp , the introduction of the first modern street lamp in Europe , and the construction of the world's first modern oil well
Mar 9 Thomas Vernon Wollaston a prominent English entomologist and malacologist, becoming especially known for his studies of Coleoptera inhabiting several North Atlantic archipelagoes. He was well-placed socially. His religious beliefs effectively prevented him from supporting Charles Darwin's theories after 1859, but Darwin remained a close friend. Wollaston supported the theory that continental lands had once extended outward farther to encompass some of the island groups he studied
Mar 9 Alexander Campbell (Canadian senator) an English-born, Upper Canadian statesman and politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation.
Mar 10 Willem Roelofs a Dutch painter, water-colourist, etcher, lithographer and draughtsman. Roelofs was one of the forerunners of the Dutch Revival art, after the Romantic Classicism of the beginning of the 19th century, which led to the formation of The Hague school. His landscapes, especially the early ones with their dominating cloudy skies, demure bodies of water and populated with cattle, are typical for the School of Barbizon
Mar 10 Josiah Latimer Clark an English Electrical Engineer, born in Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire.
Mar 11 Princess Januária of Brazil a Brazilian princess and Portuguese infanta. She was the second daughter of Pedro I of Brazil and IV of Portugal and his wife Maria Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria
Mar 11 Joseph Louis François Bertrand a French mathematician who worked in the fields of number theory, differential geometry, probability theory, economics and thermodynamics.
Mar 14 Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies the Empress consort of Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil, who reigned from 1831 to 1889. Born a Princess of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in present-day southern Italy, she was the daughter of King Don Francesco I of the Italian branch of the House of Bourbon and his wife Maria Isabel. It was long believed by historians that the Princess was raised in an ultra-conservative, intolerant atmosphere which resulted in a timid and unassertive character in public and an ability to be contented with very little materially or emotionally. Recent studies revealed a more complex character, who despite having respected the social norms of the era, was able to assert a limited independence due to her strongly opinionated personality as well as her interest in learning, sciences and culture
Mar 16 Rosa Bonheur a French animalière, realist artist, and sculptor. As a painter she became famous primarily for two chief works: Ploughing in the Nivernais , which was first exhibited at the Salon of 1848, and is now in the Musée d’Orsay in Paris, depicts a team of oxen ploughing a field while attended by peasants set against a vast pastoral landscape; and, The Horse Fair which was exhibited at the Salon of 1853 and is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York City. Bonheur is widely considered to have been the most famous female painter of the nineteenth century
Mar 16 John Pope (military officer) a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. He had a brief but successful career in the Western Theater, but he is best known for his defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the East
Mar 17 Sa'id of Egypt the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan from 1854 until 1863, officially owing fealty to the Ottoman Sultan but in practice exercising virtual independence. He was the fourth son of Muhammad Ali Pasha. Sa'id was a Francophone, educated in Paris