Born in 1823

Jan 1 Sándor Petőfi a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary. He is considered Hungary's national poet, and was one of the key figures of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. He is the author of the Nemzeti dal , which is said to have inspired the revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary that grew into a war for independence from the Austrian Empire. It is most likely that he died in the Battle of Segesvár, one of the last battles of the war
Jan 3 Robert Whitehead an English engineer, most famous for developing the first effective self-propelled naval torpedo.
Jan 3 Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach a botanist and the foremost German orchidologist of the 19th century. His father Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach was also a well-known botanist
Jan 3 Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens an organist and composer for his instrument.
Jan 4 Peter Joseph Osterhaus Union Army General in the American Civil War and later served as a diplomat.
Jan 5 José María Iglesias a Mexican lawyer, professor, journalist and politician. From 31 October 1876 to 23 January 1877 he claimed the interim presidency of Mexico. However he was never undisputed president
Jan 8 Alfred Russel Wallace a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution through natural selection; his paper on the subject was jointly published with some of Charles Darwin's writings in 1858. This prompted Darwin to publish his own ideas in On the Origin of Species. Wallace did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin and then in the Malay Archipelago, where he identified the faunal divide now termed the Wallace Line, which separates the Indonesian archipelago into two distinct parts: a western portion in which the animals are largely of Asian origin, and an eastern portion where the fauna reflect Australasia
Jan 9 Friedrich von Esmarch a German surgeon. He developed the Esmarch bandage and founded the Deutscher Samariter-Verein, the predecessor of the Deutscher Samariter-Bund
Jan 11 Pierre Philippe Denfert-Rochereau a French serviceman and politician. He achieved fame by successfully defending besieged Belfort during the Franco-Prussian War: this earned him the soubriquet the Lion of Belfort
Jan 14 Charles III Duke of Parma Duke of Parma from 1849 to 1854.
Jan 18 Carl Heissler an Austrian violinist and violist.
Jan 18 Chichester Parkinson-Fortescue 1st Baron Carlingford a British Liberal politician of the 19th century.
Jan 18 Victor Ruffy a Swiss politician.
Jan 20 Imre Madách a Hungarian writer, poet, lawyer and politician. His major work is The Tragedy of Man. It is a dramatic poem approximately 4000 lines long, which elaborates on ideas comparable to Goethe's Faust. The author was encouraged and advised by János Arany, one of the most famous of 19th century Hungarian poets
Jan 20 Jacques Grenier a Canadian businessman and politician. He was mayor of Montreal
Jan 25 Zeynalabdin Taghiyev an Azeri national industrial magnate and philanthropist.
Jan 27 Édouard Lalo a French composer.
Jan 28 Moritz Schiff a German physiologist.
Feb 3 Spencer Fullerton Baird an American naturalist, ornithologist, ichthyologist, herpetologist, and museum curator. Baird was the first curator to be named at the Smithsonian Institution. He would eventually serve as the second Secretary of the Smithsonian, from 1878 until 1887. He published over 1,000 works during his lifetime. He was dedicated to expanding the natural history collections of the Smithsonian and upon his death, had done so by expanding the collection from 6,000 specimens in 1850 to over 2 million upon his death
Feb 7 Richard Genée a Prussian born Austrian librettist, playwright, and composer.
Feb 12 Count Richard Belcredi an Austrian civil servant and statesman. Belcredi was prime minister in Imperial Austria during 27 July 1865 – 7 February 1867, when he resigned. During 1881-1895, Belcredi was President of the Administrative Court
Feb 13 Adolfo Targioni Tozzetti an Italian entomologist who specialised in Sternorrhyncha. He was Professor of Botany and Zoology in Florence, associated with Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze where his collection remains today at La Specola. He was especially interested in pest species, mainly mealybugs, scale insects and other pests that attack citrus and peaches. He described many new taxa
Feb 14 William Henry Powell an American artist who was born and died in New York City.
Feb 15 Li Hongzhang a politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing Empire. He quelled several major rebellions and served in important positions of the Imperial Court, including the premier viceroyalty of Zhili
Feb 16 John D. Imboden a lawyer, teacher, Virginia state legislator. During the American Civil War, he was a Confederate cavalry general and partisan fighter. After the war he returned to practicing law, began writing, and also was active in developing natural resources
Feb 18 Jasper Francis Cropsey an important American landscape artist of the Hudson River School.
Feb 21 Eduard Oscar Schmidt a German zoologist and phycologist.
Feb 21 Pierre Laffitte a French positivist.
Feb 22 Henry Conybeare an English civil engineer and Gothic revival architect who designed two notable churches and greatly improved the supply of drinking water to Mumbai.
Feb 27 William B. Franklin a career United States Army officer and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. He rose to the rank of a corps commander in the Army of the Potomac, fighting in several notable early battles in the Eastern Theater
Feb 28 Frederick Francis II Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin a Prussian officer and Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 7 March 1842 until 15 April 1883.
Feb 28 Ernest Renan a French expert of Middle East ancient languages and civilizations, philosopher and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany. He is best known for his influential historical works on early Christianity and his political theories, especially concerning nationalism and national identity. Renan is credited as being among the first scholars to advance the Khazar theory, which held that Ashkenazi Jews were descendants of Turkic peoples who had adopted Jewish religion and migrated to Western Europe following the collapse of their khanate
Mar 3 Gyula Andrássy a Hungarian statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary and subsequently as Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary. A conservative, his foreign policies looked to expanding the Empire into Southeast Europe, preferably with British and German support, and without alienating Turkey. He saw Russia as the main adversary, because of its own expansionist policies toward Slavic and Orthodox areas. He distrusted Slavic nationalist movements as a threat to his multi-ethnic empire
Mar 4 George Caron a Quebec businessman and political figure. He represented Maskinongé in the 1st Canadian Parliament as a Conservative member
Mar 6 Charles I of Württemberg the third King of Württemberg, from 25 June 1864 until his death in 1891.
Mar 10 David Heaton an American attorney and politician, a US Representative from North Carolina. He earlier was elected to the state senates of Ohio and Minnesota
Mar 10 Leopold Eidlitz a prominent New York architect best known for his work on the New York State Capitol , as well as "Iranistan" , T. Barnum's house in Bridgeport, Connecticut; Peter's Church, on Westchester Avenue at Peter's Avenue in the Bronx ; the former Temple Emanu-El ; the Broadway Tabernacle ; the completion of the Tweed Courthouse ; and the Park Presbyterian Chapel on West 86th Street and Amsterdam Avenue
Mar 13 Dmitry Tolstoy a Russian statesman, a member of the State Council of Imperial Russia. He belonged to the comital branch of the Tolstoy family
Mar 13 Sir William Mackinnon 1st Baronet a Scottish ship-owner and businessman who built up substantial commercial interests in India and East Africa. He established the British India Steam Navigation Company and the Imperial British East Africa Company
Mar 14 Józef Simmler a Polish painter known for his classical style and his Polish subjects.
Mar 14 Théodore de Banville a French poet and writer.
Mar 16 William Henry Monk Known in his day as an organist, church musician, and music editor, William Henry Monk composed popular hymn tunes, including one of the most famous, "Eventide", used for the hymn "Abide with Me". He also wrote music for church services and anthems
Mar 16 Mikhail Sidorov a Siberian goldmine owner. Sidorov was also pioneering entrepreneur in Russia’s Arctic who had a vision for the development of trade along the Northern Sea Route. Along with wealthy Swedish merchant and philanthropist of Scottish origin Oskar Dickson, Sidorov sponsored voyages to the Siberian North for several years
Mar 18 Antoine Chanzy a French general, notable for his successes during the Franco-Prussian War and as a governor of Algeria.
Mar 19 Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria a daughter of Ludwig I of Bavaria and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen. She was Duchess consort of Modena by her marriage to Francis V, Duke of Modena
Mar 20 John Echols a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
Mar 21 Jules Émile Planchon a French botanist born in Ganges, Hérault.
Mar 23 Schuyler Colfax a United States Representative from Indiana , Speaker of the House of Representatives , and the 17th Vice President of the United States. To date, he is one of only two Americans to have served as both House speaker and vice president
Mar 24 Thomas Spencer Baynes a philosopher.
Mar 31 Ernest Doudart de Lagrée the leader of the French Mekong Expedition of 1866-1868.