Died in 1823

Jan 3 Johann Baptist Allgaier a German-Austrian chess master and theoretician. He was also the author of the first chess handbook in German – Neue theoretisch-praktische Anweisung zum Schachspiel
Jan 3 Jean Joseph Amable Humbert a French soldier, a participant in the French Revolution, who led a failed invasion of Ireland to assist Irish rebels in 1798. Born in the townland of La Coâre Saint-Nabord, outside Remiremont Vosges, he was a sergeant in the National Guard of Lyon, and rapidly advanced through the ranks to become brigadier general on 9 April 1794, and fought in the Western campaigns before being allocated to the Army of the Rhine
Jan 14 Ernst von Rüchel a Prussian general who led an army corps in a crushing defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Jena on 14 October 1806. He commanded troops from the Kingdom of Prussia in several battles during the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793 and 1794. Afterward he held various appointments as a diplomat and a military inspector. In 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars he held an important army command but has been criticized for his actions at Jena. Wounded, he managed to escape the French pursuit, but never commanded troops in combat again
Jan 14 Athanasios Kanakaris a Greek politician. He fought in the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire
Jan 17 Zacharias Werner a German poet, dramatist, and preacher. As a dramatist, he is known mainly for inaugurating the era of the so-called “tragedies of fate.”
Jan 21 Cayetano José Rodríguez an Argentine cleric, journalist and poet. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán of 9 July 1816 which declared the Independence of Argentina
Jan 22 Jean-Pierre Count of Montalivet a French statesman and Peer of France. He was the father of Camille Bachasson, 3rd Count of Montalivet, Minister of the Interior under Louis-Philippe
Jan 26 Edward Jenner an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine. He is often called "the father of immunology", and his work is said to have "saved more lives than the work of any other human"
Feb 5 Juan Antonio Llorente a Spanish historian.
Feb 7 Ann Radcliffe an English author and pioneer of the Gothic novel. Her style is Romantic in its vivid descriptions of landscapes and long travel scenes, yet the Gothic element is obvious through her use of the supernatural. It was her technique " the explained supernatural," the final revelation of inexplicable phenomena, that helped the Gothic novel achieve respectability in the 1790s
Feb 11 William Playfair a Scottish engineer and political economist, the founder of graphical methods of statistics.
Feb 16 Johann Gottfried Schicht a German composer and conductor.
Feb 16 Pierre-Paul Prud'hon a French Romantic painter and draughtsman best known for his allegorical paintings and portraits.
Feb 17 Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf a Prussian field marshal and a member of the old junker family von Kleist.
Feb 21 Charles Wolfe an Irish poet, chiefly remembered for "The Burial of Sir John Moore after Corunna" which achieved popularity in 19th century poetry anthologies.
Feb 24 Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell a German landscape gardener from Weilburg an der Lahn.
Mar 1 Pierre-Jean Garat a French singer and nephew of Dominique Joseph Garat. He was born in Ustaritz
Mar 9 Jean Henri van Swinden a Dutch mathematician and physicist who taught in Franeker and Amsterdam.
Mar 10 George Elphinstone 1st Viscount Keith a British admiral active throughout the Napoleonic Wars.
Mar 14 John Jervis 1st Earl of St Vincent an admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom. Jervis served throughout the latter half of the 18th century and into the 19th, and was an active commander during the Seven Years' War, American War of Independence, French Revolutionary War and the Napoleonic Wars. He is best known for his victory at the 1797 Battle of Cape Saint Vincent, from which he earned his titles, and as a patron of Horatio Nelson
Mar 14 Charles François Dumouriez a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars. He shared the victory at Valmy with General François Christophe Kellermann, but later deserted the Revolutionary Army, became a royalist intriguer during the reign of Napoleon and an adviser to the British government
Mar 18 Jean-Baptiste Bréval a French cellist and composer. He wrote mostly pieces for his own instrument, and performed many world premières of his own pieces
Mar 19 Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski an influential Polish noble, writer, literary and theater critic, linguist, traveller and statesman. He was a great patron of arts and a candidate for the Polish crown. He was educated in England and after his return to Poland in 1758, he became a member of the Sejm , Crown General of Podolia and Marshal of General Confederation of Kingdom of Poland
Mar 28 Grigory Ugryumov a Russian portrait and history painter in the Classical style.
Apr 7 Jacques Charles a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist. Charles wrote almost nothing about mathematics, and most of what has been credited to him was due to mistaking him with another Jacques Charles, also a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, entering on May 12, 1785. He was sometimes called Charles the Geometer. Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world's first hydrogen-filled balloon in August 1783; then in December 1783, Charles and his co-pilot Nicolas-Louis Robert ascended to a height of about 1,800 feet in a manned balloon. Their pioneering use of hydrogen for lift led to this type of balloon being named a Charlière
Apr 10 Karl Leonhard Reinhold an Austrian philosopher. He was the father of Ernst Reinhold, also a philosopher
May 2 Thomas Davey (governor) the second Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen's Land, Australia.
May 24 Franz de Paula Adam von Waldstein an Austrian soldier, explorer and naturalist.
Jun 1 Louis-Nicolas Davout a Marshal of the Empire during the Napoleonic Era. His prodigious talent for war along with his reputation as a stern disciplinarian, earned him the title "The Iron Marshal". He is ranked along with Masséna and Lannes as one of Napoleon's finest commanders. He was one of the few commanders during the Napoleonic Wars who was never defeated on the field. His loyalty and obedience to Napoleon were absolute. During his lifetime, Davout's name was commonly spelled Davoust, which is how it appears on the Arc de Triomphe and in much of the correspondence between Napoleon and his generals
Jun 19 William Combe a British miscellaneous writer. His early life was that of an adventurer, his later was passed chiefly within the "rules" of the King's Bench Prison. He is chiefly remembered as the author of The Three Tours of Syntax, a comic poem satirising William Sawrey Gilpin. His cleverest piece of work was a series of imaginary letters, supposed to have been written by the second, or "wicked" Lord Lyttelton. Of a similar kind were his letters between Swift and "Stella". He also wrote the letterpress for various illustrated books, and was a general hack
Jul 8 Henry Raeburn a Scottish portrait painter and Scotland's first significant portrait painter since the Union to remain based in Scotland. He served as Portrait Painter to King George IV in Scotland
Jul 22 William Bartram an American naturalist. The son of Ann and John Bartram, William Bartram and his twin sister Elizabeth were born in Kingsessing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As a boy, he accompanied his father on many of his travels to the Catskill Mountains, the New Jersey Pine Barrens, New England, and Florida. From his mid-teens, Bartram was noted for the quality of his botanic and ornithological drawings. He also had an increasing role in the maintenance of his father's botanic garden, and added many rare species to it
Aug 2 Lazare Carnot a French politician, engineer, and mathematician.
Aug 7 Mátyás Laáb a Burgenland Croatian Roman Catholic priest, writer and translator. His work is the first translation of the New Testament in Burgenland Croatian
Aug 17 Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen the elder daughter of Karl Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Usingen, and wife of Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel.
Aug 18 André-Jacques Garnerin a balloonist and the inventor of the frameless parachute. He was appointed Official Aeronaut of France
Aug 20 Pope Pius VII born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, reigned from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823. Chiaramonti was also a monk, theologian, and bishop throughout his life. When he joined his religious order in 1756 he took the name of Gregorio
Aug 20 Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus now published as the Brockhaus encyclopedia.
Aug 21 Markos Botsaris a general and hero of the Greek War of Independence and captain of the Souliotes. Botsaris is among the most revered national heroes in Greece
Sep 11 David Ricardo a British political economist. He was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith, and James Mill. He began his professional life as a broker and financial market speculator. He amassed a considerable personal fortune, largely from financial market speculation and, having retired, bought a seat in the U.K. Parliament. He held his parliamentary seat for the last four years of his life. Perhaps his most important legacy is his theory of comparative advantage, which suggests that a nation should concentrate its resources solely in industries where it is most internationally competitive and trade with other countries to obtain products not produced nationally. In essence, Ricardo promoted the idea of extreme industry specialization by nations, to the point of dismantling internationally competitive and otherwise profitable industries. In this thinking Ricardo assumed the existence of a national industry policy aimed at promoting some industries to the detriment of others. For Ricardo some form of Central Economic Planning was a given. Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage has been challenged by, among others, Joan Robinson and Piero Sraffa, but remains the cornerstone of the argument in favour of international free trade as a means of increasing economic prosperity. The theory of comparative advantage was the forerunner of the push towards globalization via increased international trade, the guiding theme in economic policy currently promoted by the OECD and the World Trade Organization
Sep 11 Balthasar von Campenhausen a Russian statesman who held the ranks of Privy Councilor and Chamberlain.
Sep 11 José Correia da Serra a Portuguese Abbot, polymath - philosopher, diplomat, politician and scientist. In some circumstances, he was also known as Abbé Correa. The plant genus Correa is named in his honour
Sep 17 Abraham-Louis Breguet a horologist who made many innovations in the course of a career in watchmaking in France. In his lifetime he was considered the leading watchmaker of his day, and he built up a clientele that included many leading public figures and members of the European nobility. Alongside his friend and contemporary John Arnold, Breguet is now widely acknowledged as one of the greatest horologists of all time
Sep 18 Roger de Damas a French Army officer and Royalist general who fought against the French Revolutionary forces for the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Naples.
Sep 23 Matthew Baillie a Scottish physician and pathologist.
Oct 2 Daniel Steibelt a German pianist and composer who died in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Oct 30 Edmund Cartwright an English inventor. He graduated from Oxford University very early and went on to invent the power loom. Married to local Elizabeth McMac at 19, he was the brother of Major John Cartwright, a political reformer and radical, and George Cartwright, explorer of Labrador
Nov 1 Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg a German poet and critic.
Nov 7 Rafael del Riego a Spanish general and liberal politician, who played a key role in the outbreak of the Liberal Triennium.
Nov 9 Vasily Kapnist a Russian and Ukrainian poet and playwright who wrote in somewhat rough Russian.