Born in 1827

Jan 1 John Ireland (politician) the 18th Governor of Texas from 1883 to 1887. During Ireland's term, the University of Texas was established, and construction on the Texas State Capitol began. Ireland is credited with the selection of local pink granite as the construction material
Jan 2 Prince Kraft zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen a Prussian general and military writer during the time of the German Empire.
Jan 7 Sandford Fleming a Scottish-born Canadian engineer and inventor. He proposed worldwide standard time zones, designed Canada's first postage stamp, left a huge body of surveying and map making, engineered much of the Intercolonial Railway and the Canadian Pacific Railway, and was a founding member of the Royal Society of Canada and founder of the Royal Canadian Institute, a science organization in Toronto
Jan 10 George William Cox a British historian. He is known for resolving the several myths of Greece and the world into idealisations of solar phenomena.The French poet Stéphane Mallarmé has translated some of his works under the title of Les dieux antiques"
Jan 11 Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria an Austrian prime minister. He was a son of Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria and Princess Elisabeth of Savoy
Jan 13 Nikolay Beketov a Russian physical chemist and metallurgist.
Jan 21 Ivan Mikheevich Pervushin a Russian mathematician of the 2nd half of 19th century.
Jan 27 Nakahama Manjirō also known as John Manjirō. He was one of the first Japanese people to visit the United States and an important translator during the Opening of Japan
Jan 27 Thomas Joseph Lamy a Belgian Biblical scholar and Orientalist.
Jan 27 Kawai Tsugunosuke a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period, who served the Makino clan of Nagaoka. Kawai was a senior military commander of Nagaoka forces during the Boshin War of 1868-1869. He escaped to nearby Aizu after his domain's fall; however, he contracted gangrene from an untreated leg wound, and died in Aizu
Feb 1 Alphonse James de Rothschild a French financier, vineyard owner, art collector, philanthropist, racehorse owner/breeder and a member of the prominent Rothschild banking family of France.
Feb 2 Oswald Achenbach a German painter associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. Though little known today, during his lifetime he was counted among the most important landscape painters of Europe. Through his teaching activities, he influenced the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. His brother, Andreas Achenbach, who was twelve years older, was also among the most important German landscape painters of the 19th century. The two brothers were humorously called "the A and O of Landscapes"
Feb 5 Peter Lalor an activist turned politician who rose to fame for his leading role in the Eureka Rebellion, an event controversially identified with the "birth of democracy" in Australasia. He is famous for being the only outlaw to make it to parliament
Feb 10 Martín Tovar y Tovar one of the most important and high-profile Venezuelan painters of the 19th century. Tovar y Tovar's most famous work is his famous and well-known depiction of the Battle of Carabobo. Tovar y Tovar's other famous works are his portrayals of the Battle of Junín and the Battle of Ayacucho
Feb 17 Maria Francesca Rossetti an English author. She was the sister of artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti as well as William Michael Rossetti and Christina Georgina Rossetti, who dedicated her 1862 poem Goblin Market to Maria. She was born in London
Feb 18 Heinrich Karl Brugsch a German Egyptologist. He was associated with Auguste Mariette in his excavations at Memphis. He became director of the School of Egyptology at Cairo, producing numerous very valuable works and pioneering the decipherment of Demotic, the simplified script of the later Egyptian periods
Feb 23 Raffaele Monaco La Valletta S.T.D. J.U.D. was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Secretary of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office
Feb 24 Lydia Becker a leader in the early British suffrage movement, as well as an amateur scientist with interests in biology and astronomy. She is best remembered for founding and publishing the Women's Suffrage Journal between 1870 and 1890
Feb 28 Albert Lacombe a French-Canadian Roman Catholic missionary who lived among and evangelized the Cree and also visited the Blackfoot First Nations of North Western Canada. He is now remembered for having brokered a peace between the Cree and Blackfoot, negotiating construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway through Blackfoot territory, and securing a promise from the Blackfoot leader Crowfoot to refrain from joining the North-West Rebellion of 1885
Feb 28 Édouard-Charles Fabre Archbishop of Montreal in 1886 and of Sherbrooke and Saint-Hyacinthe in 1887.
Mar 5 Hans Balatka a United States conductor and composer. His efforts contributed much to the great increase in popularity of European classical music in the United States during the late 19th century
Mar 8 Frederick Manson Bailey a botanist active in Australia, who made valuable contributions to the characterisation of the flora of Queensland.
Mar 8 Wilhelm Bleek a German linguist. His work included A Comparative Grammar of South African Languages and his great project jointly executed with Lucy Lloyd: The Bleek and Lloyd Archive of ǀxam and !kun texts
Mar 12 William R. Terry a businessman, politician, prison superintendent and a brigadier general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.
Mar 19 Mișu Popp a Romanian painter and muralist.
Mar 27 Ernesto Rossi (actor) an Italian actor and playwright.
Mar 29 Ernst Friedrich Wilhelm Klinkerfues a German astronomer.
Apr 2 William Holman Hunt an English painter, and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
Apr 5 Joseph Lister 1st Baron Lister a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery. By applying Louis Pasteur's advances in microbiology, he promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid to sterilise surgical instruments and to clean wounds, which led to a reduction in post-operative infections and made surgery safer for patients
Apr 8 Barbara Bodichon an English educationalist, artist, and a leading mid nineteenth-century feminist and activist for women's rights.
Apr 8 Ramón Emeterio Betances a Puerto Rican nationalist. He was the primary instigator of the Grito de Lares revolution and is considered to be the father of the Puerto Rican independence movement. Since the Grito galvanized a burgeoning nationalist movement among Puerto Ricans, Betances is also considered "El Padre de la Patria". Because of his charitable deeds for people in need, he also became known as "El Padre de los Pobres"
Apr 9 Maria Susanna Cummins an American novelist.
Apr 10 Lew Wallace an American lawyer, Union general in the American Civil War, governor of the New Mexico Territory, politician, diplomat, and author from Indiana. Among his novels and biographies, Wallace is best known for his historical adventure story, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ , a bestselling novel that has been called "the most influential Christian book of the nineteenth century."
Apr 11 Jyotirao Phule an Indian activist, thinker, social reformer, writer and theologist from Maharashtra. He and his wife, Savitribai Phule, were pioneers of women's education in India. His work extended to many fields including education, agriculture, caste system, women and widow upliftment and removal of untouchability. He is most known for his efforts to educate women and the lower castes as well as the masses. He, after educating his wife, opened the first school for girls in India in August 1848
Apr 11 James Augustus Grant a Scottish explorer of eastern equatorial Africa.
Apr 13 Hermenegild Jireček born at Vysoké Mýto , was an official in the Prague bureau of education.
Apr 14 Augustus Pitt Rivers an English army officer, ethnologist, and archaeologist. He was noted for innovations in archaeological methodology, and in the museum display of archaeological and ethnological collections. His international collection of about 22,000 objects was the founding collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum at the University of Oxford while his collection of English archaeology from the area around Stonehenge forms the basis of the collection at The Salisbury Museum in Wiltshire. Throughout most of his life he used the surname Lane Fox, under which his early archaeological reports are published. In 1880 he adopted the Pitt Rivers name on inheriting from Lord Rivers an estate of more than 32000 acres in Cranborne Chase. His name will ever be a prominent landmark in the history of the progress of archaeology and ethnology
Apr 16 Octave Crémazie a French Canadian poet and bookseller born in Quebec City. Recognized both during and after his lifetime for his patriotic verse and his significant role in the cultural development of Quebec, Crémazie has been called "the father of French Canadian poetry."
Apr 20 John Gibbon a career United States Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars.
Apr 25 Jean Antoine Zinnen a Luxembourgian composer, best known for the Luxembourgish national anthem, Ons Hémécht.
Apr 27 Nikolay Alexeyevich Orlov a Russian diplomat. He was the Ambassador of Russia to Belgium from July 3, 1859 to December 13, 1869. From December 13, 1869 to May 2, 1870 he was the Ambassador of the Russian Empire to the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Apr 27 Zénobe Gramme a Belgian electrical engineer. He was born at Jehay-Bodegnée on 4 April 1826, the sixth child of Mathieu-Joseph Gramme, and died at Bois-Colombes on 20 January 1901. He invented the Gramme machine, a type of direct current dynamo capable of generating smoother and much higher voltages than the dynamos known to that point
Apr 27 Mary Ward (scientist) an Anglo-Irish amateur scientist who was killed when she fell under the wheels of an experimental steam car built by her cousins. As the event occurred in 1869, she is the world's first known fatal motor vehicle accident victim
May 1 August Cappelen a Norwegian painter. Cappelen was best known for his melancholic, dramatic and romantic landscape compositions
May 1 Jules Breton a 19th-century French Realist painter. His paintings are heavily influenced by the French countryside and his absorption of traditional methods of painting helped make Jules Breton one of the primary transmitters of the beauty and idyllic vision of rural existence
May 4 John Hanning Speke most associated with the search for the source of the Nile and reaching Victoria Nyanza. He is also known for propounding the Hamitic hypothesis in 1863 - his writings are an example of scientific racism. In this hypothesis, he supposed that the Tutsi ethnic group were descendants of the biblical figure, Ham, and had lighter skin and more “European” features than the Bantu-featured Hutu over whom they ruled
May 6 Hermann Raster a German American Forty-Eighter, best known for his career as chief editor for the Illinois Staats-Zeitung between 1867 and 1891 and his brief term as Collector of Internal Revenue for the 1st District of Illinois.
May 10 William Windom an American politician from Minnesota. He served as U.S. Representative from 1859 to 1869, and as U.S. Senator from 1870 to January 1871, from March 1871 to March 1881, and from November 1881 to 1883. He also served as Secretary of the Treasury from March to November 1881, and from 1889 to 1891. He was a Republican. He was the great-grandfather of the actor named after him, William Windom
May 11 Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux a French sculptor and painter during the Second Empire under Napoleon III.
May 15 Knud Bergslien a Norwegian painter, art teacher and master artist. In his art, he frequently portrayed the lives of the Norwegian people, their history and heroes of the past. Bergslien is most associated with his historical paintings, especially Skiing Birchlegs Crossing the Mountain with the Royal Child