Born in 1830

Jan 2 Henry Kingsley an English novelist, brother of the better-known Charles Kingsley. He was an early exponent of Muscular Christianity in his 1859 work The Recollections Of Geoffrey Hamlyn
Jan 7 Albert Bierstadt a German-American painter best known for his lavish, sweeping landscapes of the American West. To paint the scenes, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion. Though not the first artist to record these sites, Bierstadt was the foremost painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century
Jan 8 Gouverneur K. Warren a civil engineer and prominent general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He is best remembered for arranging the last-minute defense of Little Round Top during the Battle of Gettysburg and is often referred to as the "Hero of Little Round Top." His subsequent service as a corps commander and his remaining military career were ruined during the Battle of Five Forks, when he was relieved of command by Philip Sheridan
Jan 8 Hans von Bülow a German conductor, virtuoso pianist, and composer of the Romantic era. One of the most famous conductors of the 19th century, his activity was critical for establishing the successes of several major composers of the time, especially Richard Wagner and Johannes Brahms. Along with Carl Tausig, Bülow was perhaps the most prominent of the early students of Hungarian virtuoso pianist, conductor and composer Franz Liszt. He became acquainted with and eventually married Liszt's daughter Cosima, who later left him for Wagner. Noted for his interpretation of the works of Ludwig van Beethoven, he was one of the earliest European musicians to tour the United States
Jan 13 Filippo Filippi an Italian music critic. He wrote for the Milanese music magazine La perseveranza, and was an admirer of and frequent correspondent with Giuseppe Verdi
Jan 15 Jean-Baptiste Faure a celebrated French operatic baritone and an art collector of great significance. He also composed a number of classical songs
Jan 17 William Wright (orientalist) a famous British Orientalist, and Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge. Many of his works on Syriac literature are still in print and of considerable scholarly value, especially the catalogues of the holdings of the British Library and Cambridge University Library. A Grammar of The Arabic Language, often simply known as Wright's Grammar, continues to be a popular book with students of Arabic. Wright is also remembered for the Short history of Syriac literature
Jan 17 Blaise Alexandre Desgoffe a French painter who specialized in meticulously finished still-life paintings. He was the nephew of the painter Alexandre Desgoffe
Jan 23 Ivan Larionov a Russian composer, writer and folklorist. He is mostly remembered for the famous song "Kalinka", that he wrote in 1860
Jan 23 Gaston Alexandre Auguste Marquis de Galliffet a French general, best known for having taken part in the repression of the 1871 Paris Commune. He was Minister of War in Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet at the turn of the century, which caused a controversy in the socialist movement since independent socialist Alexandre Millerand also took part in the same government, and was thus side by side with the Fusilleur de la Commune
Jan 31 James G. Blaine an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the United States House of Representatives from 1863 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the House from 1869 to 1875, and then in the United States Senate from 1876 to 1881. He twice served as United States Secretary of State and unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President in 1876 and 1880 before being nominated in 1884. In the general election, he was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland. Blaine was one of the late 19th century's leading Republicans and champion of the moderate reformist faction of the party known as the "Half-Breeds"
Feb 3 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil 3rd Marquess of Salisbury a British Conservative statesman and thrice Prime Minister, serving for a total of over 13 years. The first British Prime Minister of the 20th century, he was the last Prime Minister to head his full administration from the House of Lords
Feb 4 Princess Elisabeth of Saxony a Princess of Saxony who married the second son of the King of Sardinia. She was the mother of Margherita, Queen of Italy
Feb 6 Daniel Oliver a British botanist.
Feb 8 Étienne-Émile Desvaux a French botanist.
Feb 11 August Eisenmenger an Austrian painter of portraits and historical subjects.
Feb 11 Hans Bronsart von Schellendorff a classical musician and composer who studied under Franz Liszt.
Feb 13 Cyrille Rose an important French Clarinetist, and served as principal clarinet at the Paris Opera. He was a teacher and composer of pedagogical material for the clarinet, much of which is still widely in use today
Feb 14 Richard Adelbert Lipsius a distinguished German Protestant theologian.
Feb 16 Lars Hertervig a Norwegian painter. His semi-fantastical work with motives from the coastal landscape in the traditional district of Ryfylke is regarded as one of the peaks of Norwegian painting
Feb 17 Gerard Krefft Johann Ludwig Gerard Krefft , one of Australia's first and greatest zoologists and palaeontologists. In addition to many scientific papers, his books include The Snakes of Australia, A Catalogue of the Minerals and Rocks in the Australian Museum and A Short Guide to the Australian Fossil Remains in the Australian Museum. He published the scientific description of the Queensland Lungfish, considered a "living fossil"
Feb 18 Abdülaziz the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdülmecid I in 1861
Feb 21 Addison Brown a United States federal judge.
Feb 24 Karolina Světlá a Czech female author of the 19th century. She was a representative to the literary May School. She married Professor Petr Mužák in 1852, who had taught her music. She also had an affair with Jan Neruda. She introduced Eliška Krásnohorská to literature and feminism. Her first novel Vesnický román was published in 1867
Feb 28 Whitley Stokes an Irish lawyer and Celtic scholar.
Mar 5 Étienne-Jules Marey a French scientist, physiologist and chronophotographer.
Mar 8 João de Deus one of the greatest Portuguese poets of his generation.
Mar 13 Antônio Conselheiro a Brazilian religious leader, preacher, and founder of the village of Canudos, the scene of the War of Canudos , a civil rebellion against the central government which was brutally stamped out with the loss of more than 15,000 lives.
Mar 15 Paul Heyse a distinguished German writer and translator. A member of two important literary societies, the Tunnel über der Spree in Berlin and Die Krokodile in Munich, he wrote novels, poetry, 177 short stories, and about sixty dramas. The sum of Heyse's many and varied productions made him a dominant figure among German men of letters. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1910 "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories." Wirsen, one of the Nobel judges, said that "Germany has not had a greater literary genius since Goethe." Heyse is the fourth oldest laureate in literature, after Doris Lessing, Theodor Mommsen and Jaroslav Seifert
Mar 15 Élisée Reclus a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist. He produced his 19-volume masterwork La Nouvelle Géographie universelle, la terre et les hommes , over a period of nearly 20 years. In 1892 he was awarded the prestigious Gold Medal of the Paris Geographical Society for this work, despite his having been banished from France because of his political activism
Mar 15 John Moresby a British Naval Officer who explored the coast of New Guinea and discovered the site of Port Moresby.
Mar 18 Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges a French historian.
Mar 20 Eugene Asa Carr a soldier in the United States Army and a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
Mar 24 Robert Hamerling an Austrian poet.
Mar 28 Christoph von Sigwart a German philosopher and logician. He was the son of philosopher Heinrich Christoph Wilhelm Sigwart
Apr 9 Eadweard Muybridge an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection. He adopted the name Eadweard Muybridge, believing it to be the original Anglo-Saxon form of his name
Apr 11 Jules-Antoine Castagnary a French liberal politician, journalist and progressive and influential art critic, who embraced the new term "Impressionist" in his positive and perceptive review of the first Impressionist show, in Le Siecle, 29 April 1874.
Apr 11 John Douglas (architect) an English architect who designed about 500 buildings in Cheshire, North Wales, and northwest England, in particular in the estate of Eaton Hall. He was trained in Lancaster and practised throughout his career from an office in Chester. Initially he ran the practice on his own, but from 1884 until two years before his death he worked in partnerships with two of his former assistants
Apr 13 Ferdinand Pauwels a Belgian history painter who lived and worked in Germany.
Apr 19 Hermógenes López a Venezuelan soldier, farmer and acting president of his country between 1887 and 1888, after the resignation of General Antonio Guzmán Blanco as cause of his voluntary exile in Paris.
Apr 21 Clémence Royer a self-taught French scholar who lectured and wrote on economics, philosophy, science and feminism. She is best known for her controversial 1862 French translation of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species
Apr 24 Princess Eugenie of Sweden a member of the Royal House of Bernadotte and a dilettante artist.
Apr 30 Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi the ruler of Kandahar and Baluchistan. He is often given credit for developing the family name "Tarzi", which would go on to play critical roles in the history of Afghanistan. Sardar Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi was a soldier, poet and a leader in Afghanistan
May 1 Guido Gezelle an influential writer and poet and a Roman Catholic priest from Belgium. He is famous for the use of the West Flemish dialect
May 2 Otto Staudinger a German entomologist and a natural history dealer considered one of the largest in the world specialising in the collection and sale of insects to museums, scientific institutions, and individuals.
May 3 Tamerlan Thorell a Swedish arachnologist.
May 4 Alberto Blest Gana a Chilean novelist and diplomat, considered the father of Chilean novel. Blest Gana was of Irish and Basque descent
May 5 John Batterson Stetson a U.S. hatter, hat manufacturer, and, in the 1860s, the inventor of the cowboy hat. He founded the John Stetson Company as a manufacturer of headwear; the company's hats are now commonly referred to simply as Stetsons
May 9 Harriet Lane Rebecca Lane Johnston , acted as First Lady of the United States during the presidency of her uncle, lifelong bachelor James Buchanan, from 1857 to 1861. Among the handful of women who have served as first lady while not being married to the president, she is by far the best known
May 10 François-Marie Raoult a French chemist who conducted research into the behavior of solutions, especially their physical properties.