1831 in history

1831 events chronologically

Feb 14 Ras Marye of Yejju marches into Tigray and defeats and kills Dejazmach Sabagadis in the Battle of Debre Abbay
Feb 24 The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, the first removal treaty in accordance with the Indian Removal Act, is proclaimed. The Choctaws in Mississippi cede land east of the river in exchange for payment and land in the West
Feb 25 Battle of Olszynka Grochowska, part of Polish November Uprising against Russian Empire
Mar 10 The French Foreign Legion is established by King Louis Philippe to support his war in Algeria
Mar 29 Great Bosnian uprising: Bosniaks rebel against Turkey
Apr 7 D. Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, resigns. He goes to his native Portugal to become King D. Pedro IV
Apr 12 Soldiers marching on the Broughton Suspension Bridge in Manchester, England cause it to collapse

Top 7 most famous people born in 1831

Feb 16 Nikolai Leskov a Russian novelist, short story writer, playwright, and journalist who also wrote under the pseudonym Stebnitskiy. Praised for his unique writing style and innovative experiments in form, and held in high esteem by Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Maxim Gorky among others, Leskov is credited with creating a comprehensive picture of contemporary Russian society using mostly short literary forms. His major works include Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk , The Cathedral Clergy , The Enchanted Wanderer , and The Tale of Cross-eyed Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea
Mar 6 Philip Sheridan a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. His career was noted for his rapid rise to major general and his close association with Gen. Ulysses Grant, who transferred Sheridan from command of an infantry division in the Western Theater to lead the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac in the East. In 1864, he defeated Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley and his destruction of the economic infrastructure of the Valley, called "The Burning" by residents, was one of the first uses of scorched earth tactics in the war. In 1865, his cavalry pursued Gen. Robert Lee and was instrumental in forcing his surrender at Appomattox
Jun 13 James Clerk Maxwell a Scottish mathematical physicist. His most notable achievement was to formulate the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, bringing together for the first time electricity, magnetism, and light as manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics" after the first one realised by Isaac Newton. James was also a dedicated Christian from his childhood and saw his science as a natural extension of his faith
Jul 16 Naser al-Din Shah Qajar the King of Persia from 17 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated. He was the son of Mohammad Shah Qajar and Malek Jahān Khānom and the third longest reigning monarch in Persian history after Shapur II of the Sassanid dynasty and Tahmasp I of the Safavid Dynasty. Nasser al-Din Shah had sovereign power for close to 50 years and was also the first Persian monarch to ever write and publish his diaries
Aug 12 Helena Blavatsky a Russian philosopher, and occultist. In 1875, Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, and William Quan Judge established a research and publishing institute called the Theosophical Society. Blavatsky defined Theosophy as "the archaic Wisdom-Religion, the esoteric doctrine once known in every ancient country having claims to civilization." One of the main purposes of the Theosophical Society was "to form a nucleus of the Universal Brotherhood of Humanity, without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste or color". Blavatsky saw herself as a missionary of this ancient knowledge
Oct 18 Frederick III German Emperor German Emperor and King of Prussia for 99 days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors. Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl, known informally as Fritz, was the only son of Emperor Wilhelm I and was raised in his family's tradition of military service. Although celebrated as a young man for his leadership and successes during the Second Schleswig, Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars, he nevertheless professed a hatred of warfare and was praised by friends and enemies alike for his humane conduct. Following the unification of Germany in 1871 his father, then King of Prussia, became the German Emperor. On Wilhelm's death at the age of 90 on 9 March 1888, the throne passed to Frederick, who had by then been Crown Prince for 27 years. Frederick was suffering from cancer of the larynx when he died on 15 June 1888, aged 56, following unsuccessful medical treatments for his condition
Nov 19 James A. Garfield Abram Garfield served as the 20th President of the United States , after completing nine consecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives

Top 7 most famous people died in 1831

Jun 27 Sophie Germain a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by society, she gained education from books in her father's library and from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss. One of the pioneers of elasticity theory, she won the grand prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences for her essay on the subject. Her work on Fermat's Last Theorem provided a foundation for mathematicians exploring the subject for hundreds of years after. Because of prejudice against her gender, she was unable to make a career out of mathematics, but she worked independently throughout her life. In recognition of her contribution towards advancement of mathematics, an honorary degree was also conferred upon her by the University of Göttingen six years after her death. At the centenary of her life, a street and a girls' school were named after her. The Academy of Sciences established The Sophie Germain Prize in her honor
Jul 4 James Monroe the fifth President of the United States. Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation. He was of French and Scottish descent. Born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, Monroe was of the planter class and fought in the American Revolutionary War. He was wounded in the Battle of Trenton with a musket ball to his shoulder. After studying law under Thomas Jefferson from 1780 to 1783, he served as a delegate in the Continental Congress. As an anti-federalist delegate to the Virginia convention that considered ratification of the United States Constitution, Monroe opposed ratification, claiming it gave too much power to the central government. He took an active part in the new government, and in 1790 he was elected to the Senate of the first United States Congress, where he joined the Jeffersonians. He gained experience as an executive as the Governor of Virginia and rose to national prominence as a diplomat in France, when he helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. During the War of 1812, Monroe held the critical roles of Secretary of State and the Secretary of War under President James Madison
Oct 9 Ioannis Kapodistrias a Greek Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire and one of the most distinguished politicians and diplomats of Europe. After a long career in European politics and diplomacy he was elected as the first head of state of independent Greece and he is considered as the founder of the modern Greek State, and the founder of Greek independence
Nov 11 Nat Turner an African-American slave who led a slave rebellion of slaves and free blacks in Southampton County, Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 60 white deaths. Whites organized militias and called out regular troops to suppress the rising; in addition, mobs attacked blacks in the area, killing an estimated total of 100-200, many not involved at all with the revolt
Nov 14 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism
Nov 14 Ignaz Pleyel an Austrian-born French composer and piano builder of the Classical period.
Nov 16 Carl von Clausewitz a German general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" and political aspects of war. His most notable work, Vom Kriege , was unfinished at his death. Clausewitz was a realist and used the more rationalist ideas of the European Enlightenment. His thinking is often described as Hegelian because of his references to dialectical thinking but, although he was probably personally acquainted with Hegel, there remains debate as to whether or not Clausewitz was in fact a disciple. He stressed the dialectical interaction of diverse factors, noting how unexpected developments unfolding under the "fog of war" call for rapid decisions by alert commanders. He saw history as a vital check on erudite abstractions that did not accord with experience. In contrast to Antoine-Henri Jomini, he argued that war could not be quantified or reduced to mapwork, geometry, and graphs. Clausewitz had many aphorisms, of which the most famous is one that he himself never wrote: "War is the continuation of Politik by other means" , a description that has since won wide acceptance. Instead, Clausewitz actually wrote: "War is the continuation of Politik with other means". The inclusion of the German preposition "mit" changes the content of the sentence radically