Born in 1831

Jan 3 Savitribai Phule an Indian social reformer. Along with her husband, Jyotirao Phule, she played an important role in improving women's rights in India during British rule. The couple founded the first women's school at Pune in 1848. She is considered a pioneer of modern Marathi poetry
Jan 7 Heinrich von Stephan a general post director for the German Empire who reorganized the German postal service. He was integral in the founding of the Universal Postal Union in 1874, and in 1877 introduced the telephone to Germany
Jan 7 Johann Friedrich Jaennicke a German "Regierungsrat" and entomologist mainly interested in Diptera.
Jan 12 Philip Webb an English architect sometimes called the Father of Arts and Crafts Architecture.
Jan 12 Franz Georg Philipp Buchenau a German botanist and phytogeographer who was a native of Kassel. He specialized in flora of northwestern Germany
Jan 14 George Victor Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont the 3rd sovereign Prince of the German state of Waldeck and Pyrmont.
Jan 16 Jovan Ristić a Serbian statesman, diplomat and historian.
Jan 17 Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria Princess of Hungary and Bohemia.
Jan 20 Edward Routh an English mathematician, noted as the outstanding coach of students preparing for the Mathematical Tripos examination of the University of Cambridge in its heyday in the middle of the nineteenth century. He also did much to systematise the mathematical theory of mechanics and created several ideas critical to the development of modern control systems theory
Jan 22 Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein a minor German prince who became a member of the British Royal Family through his marriage to Princess Helena of the United Kingdom , the fifth child and third daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
Jan 22 Joseph Alfred Slade a stagecoach and Pony Express superintendent, instrumental in the opening of the American West and the archetype of the Western gunslinger.
Jan 25 Konstantin Leontiev a conservative, monarchist Russian philosopher who advocated closer cultural ties between Russia and the East in order to oppose the catastrophic egalitarian, utilitarian and revolutionary influences from the West. He advocated Russia's cultural and territorial expansion eastward to India, Tibet, and China
Jan 26 Mary Mapes Dodge an American children's writer and editor, best known for her novel Hans Brinker.
Jan 26 Heinrich Anton de Bary a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist.
Jan 28 Emil Rostrup a Danish botanist, mycologist and plant pathologist.
Jan 30 Victor Henri Rochefort Marquis de Rochefort-Luçay a French politician. He was born in Paris and died in Aix-les-Bains
Feb 4 Oliver Ames a U.S. political figure and financier. He was the 35th Governor of Massachusetts. He was the son of Oakes Ames , a railroad baron and United States Congressman who was censured in the Credit Mobilier scandal, and the nephew of Oliver Ames, Jr
Feb 10 Nadezhda von Meck a Russian business woman who became an influential patron of the arts, especially music. She is best known today for her artistic relationship with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, supporting him financially for thirteen years, so that he could devote himself full-time to composition, while stipulating that they were never to meet. Tchaikovsky dedicated his Symphony 4 in F minor to her. She also gave financial support to several other musicians, including Nikolai Rubinstein and Claude Debussy
Feb 10 Isaac Rülf a Jewish teacher, journalist and philosopher. He became widely known for his aid work and as a prominent early Zionist
Feb 13 John Aaron Rawlins an officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. A confidant of Ulysses Grant, Rawlins served on Grant's staff throughout the war, rising to the rank of brevet major general, and was Grant's chief defender against allegations of insobriety. After the war, he was appointed Secretary of War when Grant was elected President of the United States, but died of advanced tuberculosis five months into his term
Feb 15 Adolf Deucher a Swiss politician.
Feb 15 Josef Hlávka a Czech architect, builder, philanthropist and founder of the oldest Czech foundation for sciences and arts.
Feb 16 Nikolai Leskov a Russian novelist, short story writer, playwright, and journalist who also wrote under the pseudonym Stebnitskiy. Praised for his unique writing style and innovative experiments in form, and held in high esteem by Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Maxim Gorky among others, Leskov is credited with creating a comprehensive picture of contemporary Russian society using mostly short literary forms. His major works include Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk , The Cathedral Clergy , The Enchanted Wanderer , and The Tale of Cross-eyed Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea
Feb 16 Thomas W. Bennett (territorial governor) governor of Idaho Territory from 1871 to 1875. He also served as a Congressional delegate from the territory from March 4, 1875 to June 23, 1876. He also served in the Indiana State Senate
Feb 21 Henri Meilhac a French dramatist and opera librettist.
Feb 23 Hendrik Willem Mesdag a Dutch marine painter.
Feb 24 Leo von Caprivi a German general and statesman who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. Caprivi served as German Chancellor from March 1890 to October 1894. Caprivi promoted industrial and commercial development, and concluded numerous bilateral treaties for reduction of tariff barriers. However, this movement toward free trade angered the conservative agrarian interests, especially the Junkers. He promised the Catholic Center party educational reforms that would increase their influence, but failed to deliver. As part of Kaiser Wilhelm's "new course" in foreign policy, Caprivi abandoned Bismarck's military, economic, and ideological cooperation with Russia, and was unable to forge a close relationship with Britain. He successfully promoted the reorganization of the German military
Feb 26 Filippo Marchetti an Italian opera composer. After studying in Naples, his first opera was "successfully premiered" in Turin in 1856. With only limited success, he became a teacher of singing and composition in Rome before composing Romeo e Giulietta for a premiere in Trieste in 1865
Mar 3 George Pullman an American engineer and industrialist. He designed and manufactured the Pullman sleeping car and founded a company town, Pullman, for the workers who manufactured His Pullman Company also hired African-American men to staff the Pullman cars, who became known and widely respected as Pullman porters, providing elite service
Mar 4 Carl Eduard Cramer a Swiss botanist born in Zurich.
Mar 6 Philip Sheridan a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. His career was noted for his rapid rise to major general and his close association with Gen. Ulysses Grant, who transferred Sheridan from command of an infantry division in the Western Theater to lead the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac in the East. In 1864, he defeated Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley and his destruction of the economic infrastructure of the Valley, called "The Burning" by residents, was one of the first uses of scorched earth tactics in the war. In 1865, his cavalry pursued Gen. Robert Lee and was instrumental in forcing his surrender at Appomattox
Mar 12 Clement Studebaker an American wagon and carriage manufacturer. With his brother Henry, he co-founded the H & C Studebaker Company, precursor of the Studebaker Corporation, which built Pennsylvania-German Conestoga wagons and carriages during his lifetime, and automobiles after his death, in South Bend, Indiana
Mar 12 Joseph Gérard a French Catholic missionary who chiefly worked among the Basotho people of modern day Lesotho and the Free State province of South Africa. He was born in Bouxières-aux-Chênes, in the Diocese of Nancy and received his religious training from the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate, whom he joined at the age of twenty. He wasn't particularly gifted academically, but was quick at learning languages, which would later help him in learning the Zulu and Sesotho languages he used for his missionary work. Gérard moved to South Africa in 1853, and never returned to his home country again
Mar 15 Edward A. Perry a general under Robert Lee during the American Civil War and the 14th Governor of Florida.
Mar 15 Daniel Comboni a canonized saint.
Mar 20 Theodor Aman a Romanian painter of Armenian descent. His style is often considered to be a predecessor of Impressionism
Mar 20 Solomon L. Spink an American lawyer who served as a delegate for the Dakota Territory in the United States House of Representatives.
Mar 23 Wilhelm Sauer a Prussian pipe organ builder. One of the famous organ builders, Sauer and his firm built over 1,100 organs during his lifetime, amongst them the organs at Bremen Cathedral, Jerusalem's Church, and Berlin Cathedral, which is considered to be "his final great masterpiece"
Mar 27 Johann Friedrich Horner an ophthalmologist based at the University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Mar 31 Archibald Scott Couper a Scottish chemist who proposed an early theory of chemical structure and bonding. He developed the concepts of tetravalent carbon atoms linking together to form large molecules, and that the bonding order of the atoms in a molecule can be determined from chemical evidence
Apr 1 Albert Anker a Swiss painter and illustrator who has been called the "national painter" of Switzerland because of his enduringly popular depictions of 19th-century Swiss village life.
Apr 3 Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg the wife of King Miguel I of Portugal but only following his deposition. As a widow, she secured advantageous marriages for their six daughters
Apr 8 Jem Mace an English boxing champion. He was born at Beeston, Norfolk. Although nicknamed "The Gypsy", he denied Romani ethnicity in his autobiography. A middleweight, he succeeded in outboxing heavier opponents thanks to his dancing style, clever defensive tactics and powerful, accurate punching
Apr 12 Grenville M. Dodge a Union army officer on the frontier and pioneering figure in military intelligence during the Civil War, who served as Ulysses Grant's intelligence Chief in the Western Theater. He served in several notable assignments, including command of the XVI Corps during the Atlanta Campaign
Apr 12 Constantin Meunier a Belgian painter and sculptor, born in Etterbeek, Brussels.
Apr 14 Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs a German geographer, explorer, author and adventurer.
Apr 16 Hugo Theodor Christoph a German and Russian entomologist.
Apr 18 Eduard von Martens a German zoologist.
Apr 21 James Starley an English inventor and father of the bicycle industry. He was one of the most innovative and successful builders of bicycles and tricycles. His inventions include the differential gear and the perfection of chain-driven bicycles
Apr 21 Ernest Besnier a French dermatologist and medical director of the Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris. He was a native of Honfleur, département Calvados