Died in 1831

Jan 2 Barthold Georg Niebuhr a Danish-German statesman and historian who became Germany's leading historian of Ancient Rome and a founding father of modern scholarly historiography. Classical Rome caught the admiration of German thinkers. By 1810 Niebuhr was inspiring German patriotism in students at the University of Berlin by his analysis of Roman economics and government. Historians generally view Niebuhr as a leader of the Romantic Era and symbol of German national spirit that emerged after the defeat at Jena. But he was also deeply rooted in the classical spirit of the Age of Enlightenment in his intellectual presuppositions, his use of philologic analysis, and his emphasis on both general and particular phenomena in history
Jan 6 Rodolphe Kreutzer a French violinist, teacher, conductor, and composer of forty French operas, including La mort d'Abel.
Jan 8 Franz Krommer a Czech composer of classical music, whose 71-year life span began half a year after the death of George Frideric Handel and ended nearly four years after that of Ludwig van Beethoven.
Jan 12 Giuseppe Longhi an Italian printmaker and writer.
Jan 12 Princess Louise of Denmark (1750–1831) born to Frederick V of Denmark and Louise of Great Britain. Her eldest daughter, Marie of Hesse-Kassel, was the wife of Frederick VI of Denmark
Jan 14 Henry Mackenzie a Scottish lawyer, novelist and miscellaneous writer. He was also known by the sobriquet "Addison of the North."
Jan 16 Peter Francisco an American patriot and soldier in the American Revolutionary War.
Jan 18 Yakov Lobanov-Rostovsky (1760–1831) a Russian statesman.
Jan 21 Ludwig Achim von Arnim a German poet and novelist, and, together with Clemens Brentano and Joseph von Eichendorff, a leading figure of German Romanticism.
Jan 22 Johan August Sandels a Swedish soldier and politician, being appointed Governor of Norway 1818 and Field Marshal in 1824. He also served as acting Over-Governor of Stockholm in 1815
Jan 25 Ernst August Friedrich Klingemann a German writer. He is generally agreed to be the author of the 1804 novel Nachtwachen under the pseudonym Bonaventura
Jan 26 Sangolli Rayanna a prominent warrior from Karnataka, India. Rayanna was born on 15 August 1798. He was the army chief of the Kingdom of Kittur ruled at the time by Rani Chennamma and fought the British East India Company till his death. His life was the subject of the 2012 Kannada film Sangolli Rayanna
Jan 26 Richard Paul Jodrell a classical scholar and playwright.
Jan 26 Anton Delvig a Russian poet and journalist who studied in the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum together with Alexander Pushkin, and Wilhelm Küchelbecker with whom he became close friends. Küchelbecker dedicated a poem to him. Delvig commissioned a portrait of Pushkin from Orest Kiprensky which Pushkin bought from Delvig's widow after his friend's death
Feb 2 Harman Blennerhassett an Anglo-Irish lawyer and politician.
Feb 13 Edward Berry an officer in Britain's Royal Navy primarily known for his role as flag captain of Rear Admiral Horatio Nelson's ship HMS Vanguard at the Battle of the Nile, prior to his knighthood in 1798. He had a long and prestigious naval career and also commanded HMS Agamemnon at the Battle of Trafalgar
Feb 14 Henry Maudslay a British machine tool innovator, tool and die maker, and inventor. He is considered a founding father of machine tool technology
Feb 14 Vicente Guerrero one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence. He fought against Spain for independence in the early 19th century, and later served as President of Mexico. Of Mestizo and African ancestry, he was the grandfather of the Mexican politician and intellectual Vicente Riva Palacio
Feb 17 Friedrich Wilhelm Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg the first Duke of the Second Line of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and founder of a line that includes the Royal Houses of Denmark, Greece, Norway, and the United Kingdom.
Feb 18 Lord Charles Somerset a British soldier, politician and colonial administrator. He was governor of the Cape Colony, South Africa, from 1814 to 1826
Feb 23 Fabian Steinheil a Russian military officer, and the Governor-General of Finland between 1810 and 1824.
Feb 25 Friedrich Maximilian Klinger a German dramatist and novelist. His play Sturm und Drang gave name to the Sturm und Drang artistic epoch. He was a childhood friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and is often closely associated with Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz. Klinger worked as a playwright for the Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft for two years, but eventually left the Kingdom of Prussia to become a General in the Imperial Russian Army
Feb 26 John Sims (taxonomist) an English physician and botanist.
Mar 1 Karoline von Manderscheid-Blankenheim a princess consort of Liechtenstein; married in 16 November 1783 to prince Alois I of Liechtenstein.
Mar 4 Georg Michael Telemann a German composer and theologian.
Mar 17 Napoléon Louis Bonaparte the middle son of Louis I of Holland and Hortense de Beauharnais. His father was the younger brother of Napoléon I and reigned as King of Holland from 1806 to 1810, while his mother was the daughter of Josephine de Beauharnais, Napoléon's first wife
Mar 28 Michał Hieronim Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle.
Apr 5 Pierre Léonard Vander Linden a Belgian entomologist.
Apr 7 Henry Phipps 1st Earl of Mulgrave a British soldier and politician. He notably served as Foreign Secretary under William Pitt the Younger from 1805 to 1806
Apr 9 Paul Usteri a Swiss physician, botanist, publicist and politician.
Apr 13 Ferdinand Kauer an Austrian composer and pianist.
Apr 17 Dmitry Senyavin a Russian admiral who ranks among the greatest seamen of the Napoleonic Wars.
Apr 19 Johann Gottlieb Friedrich von Bohnenberger a German astronomer born at Simmozheim, Württemberg. He studied at the University of Tübingen. In 1798, he was appointed professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University
Apr 20 John Abernethy (surgeon) an English surgeon. He is popularly remembered today for having given his name to the Abernethy biscuit, a coarse-meal baked good meant to aid digestion
Apr 20 August Lafontaine a German novelist.
Apr 20 Luigi Rolando an Italian anatomist known for his pioneer research in brain localization of function.
Apr 21 Josef August Schultes an Austrian botanist and professor from Vienna. Together with Johann Jacob Roemer , he published the 16th edition of Linnaeus' Systema Vegetabilium. In 1821, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He was the father of Julius Hermann Schultes
Apr 21 Thursday October Christian I the first son of Fletcher Christian and his Tahitian wife Mauatua. He was conceived on Tahiti, and was the first child born on the Pitcairn Islands after the mutineers took refuge on the island. Born on a Thursday in October, he was given his unusual name because Fletcher Christian wanted his son to have "no name that will remind me of England."
Apr 27 Charles Felix of Sardinia the Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, Aosta and King of Sardinia from 1821 to 1831.
Apr 30 Jonathan Stokes an English physician and botanist, a member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, and an early adopter of the heart drug digitalis.
May 12 Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars an eminent French botanist known for his work collecting and describing orchids from the three islands of Madagascar, Mauritius and Réunion.
May 13 Christian Gottfried Körner a German jurist. His home was a literary and musical salon, and he was a friend of Friedrich Schiller
May 14 Wacław Seweryn Rzewuski a Polish explorer, poet, orientalist and horse expert.
May 19 Jean Baptiste marquis de Traversay a French creole seaman who distinguished himself in the ranks of Royal French Navy during American Revolutionary War. In 1791, fleeing from hostilities of the French Revolution, Traversay joined Imperial Russian Navy, rising to commander-in-chief of Black Sea Fleet in 1802. In 1809 he was appointed Minister of the Navy, and held this position for 18 years. His name was frequently russified to Ivan Ivanovich de Traversay
May 19 Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz a Baltic German physician, botanist, zoologist and entomologist.
May 23 Ciro Menotti an Italian patriot.
May 24 Benjamin Carr an American composer, singer, teacher, and music publisher. Born in London, he studied organ with Charles Wesley and composition with Samuel Arnold. In 1793 he traveled to Philadelphia with a stage company, and a year later went with the same company to New York, where he stayed until 1797. Later that year he moved to Philadelphia, where he became a prominent member of the city’s musical life. He was "decidedly the most important and prolific music publisher in America during the 1790s , conducting, in addition to his Philadelphia business, a New York branch from 1794 to 1797, when it was acquired by James Hewitt"
May 26 Henryk Ignacy Kamieński a Polish brigadier general. He fought on the French side in the Napoleonic Wars and then on the Polish side in the November Uprising
May 27 Jedediah Smith a hunter, trapper, fur trader, trailblazer, author, cartographer and explorer of the Rocky Mountains, the American West Coast and the Southwest during the 19th century. Nearly forgotten by historians almost a century after his death, Smith has been rediscovered as an American hero who was the first white man to travel overland from the Salt Lake frontier, the Colorado River, the Mojave Desert, and finally into California. Smith was the first United States citizen to explore and eastwardly cross the Sierra Nevada and the treacherous Great Basin. Smith also was the first American to travel up the California coast to reach the Oregon Country. Not only was he the first to do this, but he and Robert Stuart discovered the South Pass. This path became the main route used by pioneers to travel to the Oregon Country. Surviving three massacres and one bear mauling, Jedediah Smith's explorations and documented discoveries were highly significant in opening the American West to expansion by white settlers and cattlemen. In 1831, while searching for water off the Santa Fe Trail, Smith was mortally wounded by Commanche warriors
May 28 William Carnegie 7th Earl of Northesk born at Bruntsfield in Edinburgh to Admiral George Carnegie, 6th Earl of Northesk and Anne Melville.