Born in 1834

Jan 1 Kuzman Shapkarev a Bulgarian folklorist, ethnographer and scientist from Macedonia, author of textbooks and ethnographic studies and a significant figure of the Bulgarian National Revival. He is considered an ethnic Macedonian in the Republic of Macedonia
Jan 1 Ludovic Halévy a French author and playwright. His parents, Léon Halévy and Alexandrine Lebas, had converted from Judaism to Christianity prior to his birth
Jan 2 Vasily Perov a Russian painter and one of the founding members of Peredvizhniki, a group of Russian realist painters.
Jan 5 William John Wills a British surveyor who also trained for a while as a surgeon. He achieved fame as the second-in-command of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition, which was the first expedition to cross Australia from south to north, finding a route across the continent from the settled areas of Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria
Jan 6 Georges de Layens a French botanist and apiculturalist. He was the creator of a popular mobile beehive called the "Layens hive"
Jan 7 Johann Philipp Reis a self-taught German scientist and inventor. In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the Reis telephone
Jan 9 Roger Vaughan an English Benedictine monk of Downside Abbey, and the second Roman Catholic Archbishop of Sydney from 1877 to 1883.
Jan 10 John Dalberg-Acton 1st Baron Acton Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, KCVO, DL —known as Sir John Dalberg-Acton, 8th Bt from 1837 to 1869 and usually referred to simply as Lord Acton—was an English Catholic historian, politician, and writer. He was the only son of Sir Ferdinand Dalberg-Acton, 7th Baronet and a grandson of the Neapolitan admiral Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet. He is famous for his remark, "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men."
Jan 13 John Gilbert Baker an English botanist. His son was the botanist Edmund Gilbert Baker
Jan 14 Todor Burmov a leading Bulgarian Conservative Party politician and the first Prime Minister of an independent Bulgaria.
Jan 15 Samuel Arza Davenport a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania
Jan 15 Frederick DuCane Godman an English lepidopterist, entomologist and ornithologist. He was one of the twenty founding members of the British Ornithologists' Union. Along with Osbert Salvin, he is remembered for studying the fauna and flora of Central America
Jan 16 Robert R. Hitt an Assistant Secretary of State and later a member of the United States House of Representatives.
Jan 17 August Weismann a German evolutionary biologist. Ernst Mayr ranked him the second most notable evolutionary theorist of the 19th century, after Charles Darwin. Weismann became the Director of the Zoological Institute and the first Professor of Zoology at Freiburg
Jan 20 Adolph Frank a German chemist, engineer, and businessman. He is best known for having discovered uses of potash and creating the industry
Jan 20 Piet Joubert Commandant-General of the South African Republic from 1880 to 1900.
Jan 20 George D. Robinson an American politician.
Jan 28 Sabine Baring-Gould Rev. Sabine Baring-Gould was an English Anglican priest, hagiographer, antiquarian, novelist and eclectic scholar. His bibliography consists of more than 1240 publications, though this list continues to grow. His family home, Lew Trenchard Manor near Okehampton, Devon, has been preserved as he had it rebuilt and is now a hotel. He is remembered particularly as a writer of hymns, the best-known being "Onward, Christian Soldiers" and "Now the Day Is Over". He also translated the carol "Gabriel's Message" from the Basque language to the English
Jan 30 Franz Ernst Christian Neumann a German pathologist who was a native of Königsberg. His common name was Ernst Christian Neumann
Jan 30 Volodymyr Antonovych a prominent Ukrainian historian and one of the leaders of the Ukrainian national awakening in the Russian Empire. As a historian, Antonovych, who was longtime Professor of History at the University of Kiev, represented a populist approach to Ukrainian history
Feb 6 William Dorsey Pender one of the youngest generals in the Confederacy in the American Civil War. Promoted to brigadier on the battlefield at Seven Pines by Confederate President Jefferson Davis in person, he fought in the Seven Days Battles and at Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, being wounded in each of these engagements. Lee rated him as one of the most promising of his commanders, promoting him to major general at twenty-nine. Pender was mortally wounded on the second day of Gettysburg
Feb 6 Ema Pukšec a famous 19th-century soprano opera singer from Croatia.
Feb 6 Edwin Klebs a German-Swiss pathologist. He is mainly known for his work on infectious diseases. His works paved the way for the beginning of modern bacteriology, and inspired Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. He was the first to identify a bacterium that causes diphtheria, which was called Klebs-Loeffler bacterium. He is the father of physician Arnold Klebs
Feb 6 Wilhelm von Scherff a German general and military writer.
Feb 7 William Bury Westall an English novelist born in Old Accrington, Lancashire, England.
Feb 8 Dmitri Mendeleev a Russian chemist and inventor. He formulated the Periodic Law, created his own version of the periodic table of elements, and used it to correct the properties of some already discovered elements and also to predict the properties of eight elements yet to be discovered
Feb 9 Felix Dahn a German nationalist and anti-semitic lawyer, author and historian.He was also known for writing nationalist poetry.
Feb 11 Saturnino Álvarez Bugallal a Spanish lawyer, journalist and politician.
Feb 13 Heinrich Caro a German chemist.
Feb 15 V. A. Urechia Urechia was a Moldavian-born Romanian historian, Romantic author of historical fiction and plays, academic and politician. The author of Romanian history syntheses, a noted bibliographer, heraldist, ethnographer and folklorist, he founded and managed a private school, later holding teaching positions at the University of Iaşi and University of Bucharest. Urechia was also one of the founding members of the Romanian Academy and, as frequent traveler to Spain and fluent speaker of Spanish, a corresponding member of the Royal Spanish Academy. He was the father of satirist Alceu Urechia
Feb 15 Eugène Pierre Nicolas Fournier a French botanist. He was particularly interested in ferns. He was a member of the Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique
Feb 15 Paul Guigou a French landscape painter.
Feb 16 Petter Adolf Karsten a Finnish mycologist, the foremost expert on the fungi of Finland in his day, and known in consequence as the "father of Finnish mycology".
Feb 16 Ernst Haeckel a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and the kingdom Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the controversial recapitulation theory claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny
Feb 23 Gustav Nachtigal a German explorer of Central and West Africa. He is further known as the German Empire's consul-general for Tunisia and Commissioner for West Africa. His mission as commissioner resulted in Togoland and Kamerun becoming the first colonies of a German colonial empire. The Gustav-Nachtigal-Medal, awarded by the Berlin Geographical Society, is named after him
Feb 24 Julius Kollmann a German anatomist, zoologist and anthropologist.
Feb 25 Louisa Atkinson an early Australian writer, botanist and illustrator. While she was well known for her fiction during her lifetime, her long-term significance rests on her botanical work. She is regarded as a ground-breaker for Australian women in journalism and natural science, and is significant in her time for her sympathetic references to Australian Aborigines in her writings and her encouragement of conservation
Feb 26 Aleksander Zarzycki a Polish pianist, composer and conductor. Author of piano and violin compositions, mazurkas, polonaises, krakowiaks, and songs
Feb 28 Charles Santley an English-born opera and oratorio star with a bravura technique who became the most eminent English baritone and male concert singer of the Victorian era. His has been called 'the longest, most distinguished and most versatile vocal career which history records.'
Mar 1 Charlotte Wolter born at Cologne, and began her artistic career at Budapest in 1857.
Mar 2 Lev Ivanov a Russian ballet dancer and choreographer and later, Second Balletmaster of the Imperial Ballet. He is the choreographer of Dance of the little swans from Swan Lake
Mar 5 Félix de Blochausen a Luxembourgish politician. An Orangist, he was the sixth Prime Minister of Luxembourg, serving for ten years, from 26 December 1874 until 20 February 1885
Mar 6 Friedrich Müller (linguist) an Austrian linguist and ethnologist who originated the term Hamito-Semitic languages for what are now called the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Mar 6 George du Maurier a French-born British cartoonist and author, known for his cartoons in Punch and also for his novel Trilby. He was the father of actor Gerald du Maurier and grandfather of the writers Angela du Maurier and Dame Daphne du Maurier. He was also the father of Sylvia Llewelyn Davies and grandfather of the five boys who inspired J.M. Barrie's Peter Pan
Mar 11 Enrico Albanese an Italian surgeon and patriot, who lived during the Italian Risorgimento and distinguished himself in the field of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. He earned a Medical degree in 1855 and the year after he went to Florence to finish his studies, under the guidance of Pellizzari, Bufalini and Zanetti. After a few years he came back to his hometown, where he attended the school of Giovanni Gorgone, a well-known Anatomy teacher and full professor of Clinical surgery at the University of Palermo. Enrico Albanese was also a close friend of Giuseppe Garibaldi, with whom he shared a lot of ideals and political aims; in fact he participated in the “Expedition of the Thousand” in 1860. He also took part in the attempt to free Rome and during the “Aspromonte battle” on 29 August 1862 he was called upon to heal a severe wound on the foot of General Garibaldi. In 1865 he became director of the Civil Hospital of Palermo and he also founded a paediatric ward and antiseptic operating room, one of the first to follow Joseph Lister’s theories. Later in 1869 he directed the hospital gazette that became the main advertising medium of the hospital. Only after Gorgone’s death in 1868, he was called upon to take his place in the Chair of Clinical Surgery. In 1873 he committed himself to the foundation and organization of a hospital building for children, called “Ospizio Marino”, where diseases such as rickets, spondylitis and scrofula were treated. Enrico Albanese’s scientific activity was particularly intense. We can recall his studies in epidermal transplantation, blood transfusion, preventive haemostasis in surgery and also the surgical procedures that he experimented, such as Astragalectomie and shoulder resection. He died in Naples at the age of 55 on the 5th of May 1889 and was buried in the cemetery of Santa Maria di Gesù. His grave is covered by a big tombstone made of a type of marble called “pietra di Caprera”, donated by Garibaldi as a sign of friendship and gratitude
Mar 12 Hilary A. Herbert Secretary of the Navy under President Grover Cleveland. He also served as a member of the United States house of representatives from Alabama
Mar 16 James Hector a Scottish geologist, naturalist, and surgeon who accompanied the Palliser Expedition as a surgeon and geologist. He went on to have a lengthy career as a government employed man of science in New Zealand, and during this period he dominated the Colony's scientific institutions in a way that no single man has since
Mar 17 Gottlieb Daimler now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development. He invented the high-speed petrol engine
Mar 18 Etō Shimpei a Japanese statesman during the early Meiji period, remembered chiefly for his role in the unsuccessful Saga Rebellion.
Mar 19 Józef Hauke-Bosak a Polish general in the January Uprising, and commander of the Polish army in Lesser Poland, the closest collaborator of rebellion leader Romuald Traugutt. He fought many successful battles against the Russians in this region. He fled Poland after the Uprising collapsed in 1864. He died in the post of commander of brigade in the French army at Vosges, during the Franco-Prussian war in 1871