Born in 1835

Jan 2 Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Claus a German zoologist. He was an opponent of the ideas of Ernst Haeckel
Jan 3 Fanny Cornforth an English woman who became the artist's model and mistress of the Pre-Raphaelite painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Later, Cornforth performed the duties of housekeeper for Rossetti
Jan 6 Martin Kähler a German theologian. He is best known for his short work Der sogenannte historische Jesus und der geschichtliche, biblische Christus
Jan 9 Iwasaki Yatarō a Japanese financier and shipping industrialist, and the founder of Mitsubishi.
Jan 10 Fukuzawa Yukichi a Japanese author, Enlightenment writer, teacher, translator, entrepreneur and journalist who founded Keio University, the newspaper Jiji-Shinpo and the Institute for Study of Infectious Diseases. He was an early Japanese civil rights activist and liberal ideologist. His ideas about government and social institutions made a lasting impression on a rapidly changing Japan during the Meiji Era. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern Japan. He is called a Japanese Voltaire
Jan 11 Empress Eishō the empress consort of Emperor Kōmei of Japan. She is also known under the technically incorrect name Empress Eishō
Jan 14 Marcelo Spinola y Maestre a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the Archbishop of Seville.
Jan 14 Emmy Rappe a Swedish nurse and principal for a nursing school. She was one of the pioneers and founders of the Swedish nursing education. She was the first trained professional nurse and the first principal of the first nursing education in her country
Jan 17 Đura Horvatović a Serbian general and military minister.
Jan 17 Antanas Baranauskas a Lithuanian poet, mathematician and a catholic bishop of Sejny. Baranauskas is best known as the author of the Lithuanian language poem Anykščių šilelis. He used various pseudonyms, including A.B., Bangputys, Jurksztas Smalaūsis, Jurkštas Smalaūsis, and Baronas. He also wrote poetry in Polish
Jan 19 Auguste Kerckhoffs a Dutch linguist and cryptographer who was professor of languages at the École des Hautes Études Commerciales in Paris in the late 19th century.
Jan 23 August Lanner an Austrian composer, the son of the better-known Josef Lanner. He was first educated at the Anna-Schule but received no music instruction at that time. His earliest music education was first provided by his uncle, the K.k Hofopernkapellmeister Josef Strebinger in harmony and later took instructions in composition with the Viennese composer Josef Hellmesberger and also Professor Josef Mayseder. Among his first efforts at musical composition is a waltz which did not survive obscurity
Jan 31 Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns a Belgian attorney at law, diplomat and Minister of the Interior as a member of the Unitarian Liberal Party. Together with the Swiss jurist Gustave Moynier, he founded the Institut de Droit International and became its first Honorary President
Jan 31 Lunalilo monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from January 8, 1873 until February 3, 1874. He was the most liberal king in Hawaiian history, but was the shortest-reigning monarch
Feb 2 Jacob Caro a Jewish German historian.
Feb 4 A. V. Dicey Albert Venn "A. V." Dicey was a British jurist and constitutional theorist, and was the younger brother of Edward Dicey. He is most widely known as the author of An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution. The principles it expounds are considered part of the uncodified British constitution. He was a graduate of Balliol College, Oxford, and became Vinerian Professor of English Law at Oxford and a leading constitutional scholar of his day. Dicey popularised the phrase "rule of law", although its use goes back to the 17th century
Feb 5 Friedrich August Theodor Winnecke a German astronomer.
Feb 10 Victor Hensen a German zoologist. He coined the term plankton and laid the foundation for biological oceanography
Feb 13 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam.
Feb 14 Piet Paaltjens a Dutch minister and writer, who wrote prose under his own name but remains best known for the poetry published under the pen name of Piet Paaltjens.
Feb 15 Alexander S. Webb a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War who received the Medal of Honor for gallantry at the Battle of Gettysburg. After the war, he was president of the City College of New York for thirty-three years
Feb 15 Nguyễn Khuyến a famous Vietnamese Confucian scholar, poet and teacher living in the 19th century.
Feb 15 Demetrius Vikelas a Greek businessman and writer; he was the first president of the International Olympic Committee , from 1894 to 1896.
Feb 20 Alessandro d'Ancona an Italian critic and writer.
Feb 24 Julius Vogel the eighth Premier of New Zealand. His administration is best remembered for the issuing of bonds to fund railway construction and other public works. He remains the only practising Jewish prime minister of New Zealand. Historian Warwick Armstrong assesses Vogel's strengths and weaknesses:
Feb 25 Osbert Salvin an English naturalist, ornithologist, and herpetologist best known for co-authoring Biologia Centrali-Americana with Frederick DuCane Godman. This was a 52 volume encyclopedia on the natural history of Central America
Feb 25 Matsukata Masayoshi a Japanese politician and the 4th and 6th Prime Minister of Japan.
Feb 26 Richard Andree was, like his father Karl Andree, a German geographer noted for devoting himself especially to ethnography. He wrote numerous books on this subject, dealing notably with the races of his own country, while an important general work was Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche
Mar 6 Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova the mother of Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik revolutionary leader and founder of the Soviet Union.
Mar 7 Daniel Giraud Elliot an American zoologist.
Mar 12 Gregorio Maria Aguirre y Garcia a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Toledo and Primate of Spain.
Mar 12 Simon Newcomb a Canadian-American astronomer and mathematician. Though he had little conventional schooling, he made important contributions to timekeeping as well as writing on economics and statistics and authoring a science fiction novel
Mar 14 Giovanni Schiaparelli an Italian astronomer and science historian.
Mar 15 John Henry Kagi an American attorney, abolitionist and second in command to John Brown in Brown's failed raid on Harper's Ferry. He bore the title of "Secretary of War" in Brown's "provisional government." At age 24, Kagi was killed during the raid. He had also been active in fighting on the abolitionist side in 1856 in "Bleeding Kansas"
Mar 15 Eduard Strauss an Austrian composer who, together with brothers Johann Strauss II and Josef Strauss made up the Strauss musical dynasty. He was the son of Johann Strauss I and Maria Anna Streim. The family dominated the Viennese light music world for decades, creating many waltzes and polkas for many Austrian nobility as well as dance-music enthusiasts around Europe. He was affectionately known in his family as 'Edi'
Mar 15 Dürrünev Kadınefendi the first wife of Sultan Abdülaziz, and the mother of Şehzade Yusuf Izzettin Efendi and Saliha Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Mar 16 Valentin Magnan a French psychiatrist who was a native of Perpignan.
Mar 19 Franz Betz a German bass-baritone opera singer who sang at the Berlin State Opera from 1859 to 1897. He was particularly known for his performances in operas by Richard Wagner and created the role of Hans Sachs in Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg
Mar 21 Thomas Hayward (cricketer) a Cambridgeshire and All-England Eleven cricketer who was generally reckoned to be one of the outstanding batsmen of the 1850s and 1860s. In the early 1860s, he and Robert Carpenter, his Cambridgeshire colleague, were rated as the two finest batsmen in England. Richard Daft was among those ranking them as equal first, though George Parr reckoned Carpenter the better of the two
Mar 21 Maria Magdalena Mathsdotter a Swedish Sami who in 1864 took the initiative to the foundation of schools for Sami children in Lapland.
Mar 23 Worthington George Smith an English cartoonist and illustrator, archaeologist, plant pathologist, and mycologist.
Mar 23 Edward Caird a Scottish philosopher.
Mar 23 Alexei Korzukhin a Russian genre painter.
Mar 24 Joseph Stefan a Carinthian Slovene physicist, mathematician, and poet of Austrian citizenship.
Mar 25 Adolph Wagner a German economist and politician, a leading Kathedersozialist and public finance scholar and advocate of agrarianism. Wagner's law of increasing state activity is named after him
Mar 28 Ludwig Straus an Austrian violinist.
Mar 29 Gustav Zander a Swedish physician, orthopedist and one of the originators of mechanotherapy. He is known for inventing a therapeutic method of exercise carried out by means of a special apparatus. He began his work in 1860s. He established the Zander Therapeutical Institute in Stockholm
Apr 1 Josef Richard Vilímek (1835 – 1911) a Czech publisher. He established a well known publishing house and was father of publisher Josef Richard Vilímek
Apr 1 James Fisk (financier) an American stockbroker and corporate executive who has been referred to as one of the "robber barons" of the Gilded Age.
Apr 2 Jacob Nash Victor a civil engineer who worked as General Manager of the California Southern Railroad, a subsidiary of Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. Victor oversaw the construction in the early 1880s of the California Southern between Colton and Barstow, California, including the section that is now one of the busiest rail freight routes in the United States, Cajon Pass