Born in 1836

Jan 1 Vasily Potto a Russian lieutenant-general and military historian, known for his landmark works on the history of the Caucasian War.
Jan 1 Zygmunt Padlewski a Polish insurgent who participated in the January Uprising. He was one of the leaders of the "Red" faction among the insurrectionists as a member of the Central National Committee and the Provisional National Government
Jan 2 Queen Emma of Hawaii queen consort of King Kamehameha IV from 1856 to his death in 1863. She ran for ruling monarch against King Kalākaua but was defeated
Jan 2 Basile Gras General Basile Gras created the Gras rifle for the French Army in 1874 by converting the Mle 1866 Chassepot rifle to fire metallic cartridges. Gras, who was a colonel at the time, played a very important role in the formulation and industrial production of the Lebel rifle. He was an alumnus of Ecole Polytechnique, then a shooting instructor at l'École Normale de Tir at Châlons. Eventually he supervised the three weapon manufacturing facilities at St Etienne, Châtellerault and Tulle. Finally he became Secretary of War for France
Jan 3 Sakamoto Ryōma a prominent figure in the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate during the Bakumatsu period in Japan. One of his most noted accomplishments during this period was the negotiation of peace between Chōshū and Satsuma, two powerful provinces that had long been hostile to each other, and then unite them against the Bakufu, the government that supported the Tokugawa shogun. Ryōma frequently used the alias Saidani Umetarō during this period, as he was often hunted by Bakufu supporters, such as members of the Shinsengumi. He was ultimately attacked and murdered, along with his companion Nakaoka Shintarō, at an inn in Kyoto. Although many suspects have been named, the identities of the assassins have never been confirmed
Jan 4 Princess Anna of Saxony (1836–1859) the seventh child and fourth eldest daughter of John of Saxony and his wife Amalie Auguste of Bavaria and a younger sister of Albert of Saxony and George of Saxony. Through her marriage to Archduke Ferdinand, Hereditary Prince of Tuscany, Anna was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and an Archduchess and Princess of Austria and Princess of Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, and Tuscany. Ann died shortly before her husband succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Tuscany
Jan 6 Ludwig Schüler a German politician and from 17 September 1884 until 20 May 1907 mayor of Marburg.
Jan 8 Lawrence Alma-Tadema a Dutch painter of special British denizenship.
Jan 10 Charles Ingalls the father of Laura Ingalls Wilder, known for her Little House on the Prairie series of books. Ingalls is depicted as the character "Pa" in the television series
Jan 12 William Goate an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Jan 14 Henri Fantin-Latour a French painter and lithographer best known for his flower paintings and group portraits of Parisian artists and writers.
Jan 14 Hugh Judson Kilpatrick an officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War, achieving the rank of brevet major general. He was later the United States Minister to Chile, and a failed political candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives
Jan 15 Jean Baptiste Abbeloos a Belgian orientalist and Rector of the University of Leuven.
Jan 16 Francis II of the Two Sicilies King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861. He was the last King of the Two Sicilies, as successive invasions by Giuseppe Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia ultimately brought an end to his rule, and marked the first major event of Italian unification. After he was deposed, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Kingdom of Sardinia were merged into the newly formed Kingdom of Italy
Jan 16 Nakayama Yoshiko a Japanese lady-in-waiting in the court of the Imperial House of Japan. She was a favourite concubine of Emperor Kōmei and the mother of Emperor Meiji
Jan 16 Inoue Kaoru a member of the Meiji oligarchy during the Meiji period Empire of Japan. As one of the senior statesman in Japan during that period, he had a tremendous influence on the selection of the nation's leaders and formation of its policies
Jan 17 José White Lafitte a Cuban violinist and composer. His father Don Carlos White was Spanish and his mother was Afro-Cuban
Jan 18 Gottlieb Graf von Haeseler a German military officer of the Imperial Wilhelmine period, with final rank of Generalfeldmarschall.
Jan 27 Leopold von Sacher-Masoch an Austrian writer and journalist, who gained renown for his romantic stories of Galician life. The term masochism is derived from his name
Feb 1 Emil Hartmann a Danish composer, the eldest son of Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann and brother-in-law to Niels Gade and August Winding. His son Oluf Hartmann was a painter
Feb 5 Nikolay Dobrolyubov a Russian literary critic, journalist, poet and revolutionary democrat.
Feb 7 Josep Tapiró Baró a Catalan painter. One of his closest friends was the painter Marià Fortuny with whom he shared an interest for Orientalism. He was a master of watercolor painting
Feb 11 Vasili Yakovlevich Zinger a prominent Russian mathematician, botanist and philosopher. His name is sometimes spelled Wasili Jakowlewitsch Zinger
Feb 11 Thomas Brassey 1st Earl Brassey a British Liberal Party politician, Governor of Victoria and founder of The Naval Annual.
Feb 15 Sarah Fuller an American educator.
Feb 15 Matsudaira Katamori a samurai who lived in the last days of the Edo period and the early to mid Meiji period. He was the 9th daimyo of the Aizu han and the Military Commissioner of Kyoto during the Bakumatsu period. During the Boshin War, Katamori and the Aizu han fought against the Meiji Government armies, but were severely defeated. Katamori's life was spared, and he later became the Chief of the Tōshōgū Shrine. He, along with his three brothers Sadaaki, Yoshikatsu, and Mochiharu, had highly influential roles during the Meiji Restoration and were called the four Takasu brothers
Feb 18 Ramakrishna an Indian mystic during 19th-century. His religious school of thought led to the formation of the Ramakrishna Mission by his chief disciple Swami Vivekananda. He is also referred to as "Paramahamsa" by his devotees, as such he is popularly known as Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
Feb 20 Anne Casimir Pyrame de Candolle a Swiss botanist, the son of Alphonse Pyrame de Candolle.
Feb 20 Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer a Spanish post-romanticist poet and writer , also a playwright, literary columnist, and talented drawer. Today he is considered one of the most important figures in Spanish literature, and is considered by some as the most read writer after Cervantes. He adopted the alias of Bécquer as his brother Valeriano Bécquer, a painter, had done earlier. He was associated with the post-romanticism movement and wrote while realism was enjoying success in Spain. He was moderately well known during his life, but it was after his death that most of his works were published. His best known works are the Rhymes and the Legends, usually published together as Rimas y leyendas. These poems and tales are essential to the study of Spanish literature and common reading for high-school students in Spanish-speaking countries
Feb 21 Léo Delibes a French composer of ballets, operas, and other works for the stage. His most notable works include ballets Coppélia and Sylvia as well as the operas Le roi l'a dit and Lakmé. He died in Paris from natural causes on 16 January 1891, at the age of 54. He was buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre in Paris
Feb 22 Mahesh Chandra Nyayratna Bhattacharyya an Indian scholar of Sanskrit, and the principal of the Sanskrit College between 1876 and 1895. A friend and colleague of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, he played an important role in the Bengal Renaissance. He was one of the most eminent Bengalis in Kolkata of the nineteenth century
Feb 24 Elias Blix a Norwegian professor, theologian, hymn writer, and a politician for the Liberal Party. Blix wrote numerous hymns and was largely responsible for translating the New Testament into the Norwegian language
Feb 24 Winslow Homer an American landscape painter and printmaker, best known for his marine subjects. He is considered one of the foremost painters in 19th-century America and a preeminent figure in American art
Feb 25 Pauline von Metternich a famous Viennese and Parisian socialite of great charm and elegance. She was an important promoter of the work of the German composer Richard Wagner and the Czech composer Bedřich Smetana
Feb 26 Elihu Vedder an American symbolist painter, book illustrator, and poet, born in New York City.
Feb 27 Mariia Surovshchikova-Petipa prima ballerina to the Petersburg Imperial Theatres and wife of the noted choreographer Marius Petipa.
Feb 29 Dickey Pearce an American professional baseball player and one of the sport's most famous early figures. He was born in Brooklyn, New York, and began playing with the Brooklyn Atlantics in 1856. He continued his career in the National Association and the early years of Major League Baseball. It is possible Pearce was one of the first baseball players to earn money for playing the game professionally. Pearce is given credit for pioneering the shortstop position. Pearce introduced his "tricky hit" to baseball, known today as the bunt. For much of his career, the rules permitted the ball to roll foul and still be a hit
Mar 2 Henry Billings Brown an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 5 January 1891 to 28 May 1906. An admiralty lawyer and U.S. District Judge in Detroit before ascending to the high court, Brown authored hundreds of opinions in his 31 years as a federal judge, including the majority opinion in Plessy Ferguson that upheld the legality of racial segregation in public transportation
Mar 2 John W. Foster an American diplomat and military officer, as well as lawyer and journalist. His highest public office was U.S. Secretary of State under Benjamin Harrison, although he also proved influential as a lawyer in technically private practice in the international relations sphere
Mar 2 Theodor Nöldeke a German orientalist, who was born in Harburg and studied in Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin.
Mar 5 Charles Goodnight a cattle rancher in the American West, perhaps the best known rancher in Texas. He is sometimes known as the "father of the Texas Panhandle." Essayist and historian Frank Dobie said that Goodnight "approached greatness more nearly than any other cowman of history."
Mar 5 Hubert Dilger a German immigrant to the United States who became a decorated artillerist in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was noted as one of the finest artillerists in the Army of the Potomac, winning the Medal of Honor for his valiant work at the 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville
Mar 8 Michael Foster (physiologist) an English physiologist.
Mar 11 Samuel Duvall an American archer who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics.
Mar 14 Jules Joseph Lefebvre a French figure painter, educator and theorist.
Mar 16 Andrew Smith Hallidie the promoter of the Clay Street Hill Railroad in San Francisco, USA. This was the world's first practical cable car system, and Hallidie is often therefore regarded as the inventor of the cable car and father of the present day San Francisco cable car system, although both claims are open to dispute. He also introduced the manufacture of wire rope to California, and at an early age was a prolific builder of bridges in the Californian interior
Mar 17 Lucian Müller a German classical scholar.
Mar 20 Ferris Jacobs Jr. an American general and politician, he was a United States Representative from New York.
Mar 20 Edward Poynter an English painter, designer, and draughtsman who served as President of the Royal Academy.
Mar 21 Julius Wolff a German surgeon.