Born in 1838

Jan 2 Jules Brunet a French officer who played an active role in Mexico and Japan, and later became a General and Chief of Staff of the French Minister of War in 1898. He was sent to Japan with the French military mission of 1867, and after the defeat of the Shogun, had an important role in the latter part of Boshin War between the Imperial forces and the Shogun's army
Jan 4 General Tom Thumb the stage name of Charles Sherwood Stratton , a little person who achieved great fame as a midget performer under circus pioneer P.T. Barnum
Jan 5 Camille Jordan a French mathematician, known both for his foundational work in group theory and for his influential Cours d'analyse. He was born in Lyon and educated at the École polytechnique. He was an engineer by profession; later in life he taught at the École polytechnique and the Collège de France, where he had a reputation for eccentric choices of notation
Jan 6 Max Bruch a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertory.
Jan 11 Giovanni Cagliero an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Apostolic Delegate to Nicaragua from 1908 to 1915, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1915.
Jan 13 Joseph Dupont (violinist) a Belgian violinist, leader, theatre director and conductor.
Jan 13 Oskar Grippenberg commanding general of the Russian Second Manchurian Army during the Russo-Japanese War.
Jan 16 Franz Brentano an influential German philosopher and psychologist whose influence was felt by other such luminaries as Sigmund Freud, Edmund Husserl, Kazimierz Twardowski and Alexius Meinong, who followed and adapted his views.
Jan 20 Julius Wiesner a professor of botany at the University of Vienna, a specialist in the physiology and anatomy of plants.
Jan 23 Marianne Cope a German-born American who was a member of the Sisters of Saint Francis of Syracuse, New York. Known for her charitable works and virtuous deeds, she spent many years caring for lepers on the island of Molokaʻi in Hawaiʻi. Despite direct contact with the patients over many years, Cope was not afflicted by the disease, which some faithful consider miraculous
Jan 29 Edward W. Morley an American scientist famous for his path-breaking measurements of the atomic weight of oxygen, and for the Michelson–Morley experiment.
Feb 2 Frances Anne Hopkins an English painter. She was the daughter of Frederick William Beechey. In 1858, she married a Hudson's Bay Company official, Edward Hopkins, whose work took him to North America. She accompanied him and travelled extensively by canoe along some of the most important fur trading routes. While traveling, she sketched extensively and thereby recorded an interesting aspect of Canadian history
Feb 2 Adolf Marks Fyodorovich Marx , last name also spelled Marcks and recently Marks, known as F. Marx, was an influential 19th-century German publisher in Russia best known for the weekly journal Niva. He obtained Russian citizenship
Feb 2 Konstanty Kalinowski a 19th-century writer, journalist, lawyer and revolutionary. He was one of the leaders of Polish, Belarusian and Lithuanian national revival and the leader of the January Uprising in lands of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Feb 6 Israel Meir Kagan an influential rabbi of the Musar movement, a Halakhist, posek, and ethicist whose works continue to be widely influential in Jewish life. His surname, Poupko, is not widely known
Feb 6 Henry Irving an English stage actor in the Victorian era, known as an actor-manager because he took complete responsibility for season after season at the Lyceum Theatre, establishing himself and his company as representative of English classical theatre. He was the first actor to be awarded a knighthood. Irving is thought to have been the inspiration for the title character in Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula
Feb 6 Eduard Hitzig a German neurologist and neuropsychiatrist born in Berlin.
Feb 9 Evelyn Wood (British Army officer) a British Army officer. After an early career in the Royal Navy, Wood joined the British Army. He served in several major conflicts including the Indian Mutiny where, as a lieutenant, he was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for valour in the face of the enemy that is awarded to British and Commonwealth forces, for rescuing a local merchant from a band of robbers who had taken their captive into the jungle, where they intended to hang him. Wood further served as a commander in several other conflicts, notably the Third Anglo-Ashanti War, the Anglo-Zulu War, the First Boer War and the Mahdist War. His service in Egypt led to his appointment as Sirdar where he reorganised the Egyptian Army. He returned to Britain to serve as General Offier Commanding-in-Chief Aldershot Command from 1889, as Quartermaster-General to the Forces from 1893 and as Adjutant General from 1897. His last appointment was as General Offier Commanding-in-Chief Southern Command from 1905
Feb 14 Okada Izō a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period, feared as one of the four most notable assassins of the Bakumatsu period. He was born in Tosa to the gōshi Okada Gihei, who had been a peasant but had bought the gōshi rank. Izō and Tanaka Shinbei were active in Kyoto as assassins under the leadership of Takechi Hanpeita
Feb 14 Margaret E. Knight an American inventor. She has been called "the most famous 19th-century woman inventor"
Feb 16 Alexander Veselovsky a leading literary theorist of Imperial Russia who laid the groundwork for comparative literary studies.
Feb 16 Henry Adams an American historian and member of the Adams political family, being descended from two U.S. Presidents
Feb 17 Friedrich Konrad Beilstein a chemist and founder of the famous Handbuch der organischen Chemie. The first edition of this work, published in 1881, covered 1,500 compounds in 2,200 pages. This handbook is now known as the Beilstein database
Feb 18 Ernst Mach an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves. As a philosopher of science, he was a major influence on logical positivism, American pragmatism and through his criticism of Newton, a forerunner of Einstein's relativity
Feb 21 Josef Popper-Lynkeus an Austrian scholar, writer, and inventor. Josef Popper was born in the Jewish quarter in Kolín, Austrian Bohemia
Feb 26 Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu a Romanian writer and philologist, who pioneered many branches of Romanian philology and history. Hasdeu is considered to have been able to understand 26 languages
Feb 28 Maurice Lévy a French engineer and member of the Institut de France.
Mar 1 Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows an Italian Passionist clerical student. Born to a professional family, he gave up ambitions of a secular career to enter the Passionist Congregation. His life in the monastery was not extraordinary, yet he followed the rule of the congregation perfectly and was known for his great devotion to the sorrows of the Virgin Mary. He died from tuberculosis at the age of 24 in Isola del Gran Sasso, in the province of Teramo. He was canonized by Pope Benedict XV in 1920
Mar 2 Jean Alexander Heinrich Clapier de Colongue a Baltic German marine engineer and founder of a theory of magnetic deviation for magnetic compasses, living and working in Imperial Russia.
Mar 2 Giulio Boschi an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Ferrara from 1900 to 1919, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1901.
Mar 3 George William Hill an American astronomer and mathematician.
Mar 4 Paul Lacôme a French composer. Between 1870 and the turn of the century he produced a series of operettas and operas-bouffes that were popular both in France and abroad. Interest in his works revived briefly during the First World War, when they were successfully revived in Paris
Mar 6 Szymon Winawer a leading chess player who won the German Chess Championship in 1883.
Mar 9 Ludwig Gumplowicz one of the founders of European sociology. He was also a jurist and political scientist who taught constitutional and administrative law at the University of Graz
Mar 11 Ōkuma Shigenobu a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan and the 8th and 17th Prime Minister of Japan. Ōkuma was also an early advocate of Western science and culture in Japan, and founder of Waseda University
Mar 12 William Henry Perkin an English chemist best known for his accidental discovery, at the age of 18, of the first aniline dye, mauveine.
Mar 15 Karl Davydov a Russian cellist of great renown during his time, and described by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky as the "star of cellists". Arensky dedicated his first piano trio to Davydov's memory. He was also a composer, mainly for the cello
Mar 16 John Carroll (bishop of Shrewsbury) an Irish-born prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the Bishop of Shrewsbury from 1895 to 1897
Mar 19 Josef Julius Wecksell a Finnish poet and playwright. He studied at the University of Helsinki. He was committed to the Endenich asylum, and then Lappvik asylum, from 1865 until his death
Mar 21 Wilma Neruda a Moravian violinist.
Mar 25 N. B. Willey the second Governor of Idaho from 1890 until 1893.
Mar 25 Elwell Stephen Otis a United States of America General who served in the Philippines late in the Spanish-American War and during the Philippine-American War.
Mar 28 Jean-Paul Laurens a French painter and sculptor, and one of the last major exponents of the French Academic style.
Mar 28 Louis André France's Minister of War from 1900 until 1904. Loyal to the laïque Third Republic, he was anti-Catholic, militantly anticlerical, a Freemason and was implicated in the Affaire Des Fiches, a scandal in which he received reports from Masonic groups on which army officers were practicing Catholics for the purpose of denying their promotions
Mar 31 Léon Dierx a French poet born in Saint-Denis in 1838. He came to Paris to study at the Central School of Arts and Manufactures and subsequently settled there, taking up a post in the education office. He became a disciple of Leconte de Lisle and one of the most distinguished of the Parnassians. At the death of Stéphane Mallarmé in 1898 he was acclaimed prince of poets by les jeunes. His works include: Aspirations ; Poèmes et poésies ; Lèvres closes ; Paroles d'un vaincu ; La Rencontre, a dramatic scene and Les Amants. His Poésies complètes were crowned by the French Academy. A complete edition of his works was published in 2 vols., 1894-1896. He was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1901
Apr 2 Josef Kalousek a Czech historian, professor of Czech history on Univerzita Karlova in Prague.
Apr 2 Léon Gambetta a French statesman, prominent during and after the Franco-Prussian War.
Apr 10 Otis Tufton Mason an American ethnologist and Smithsonian Institution curator.
Apr 10 Frank Stephen Baldwin an American who invented a pinwheel calculator in 1874. He started the design of a new machine in 1905 and was able to finalize its design with the help of Jay Monroe who eventually bought the exclusive rights to the machine and started the Monroe Calculating Machine Company to manufacture it
Apr 13 Gotō Shōjirō a Japanese samurai and politician during the Bakumatsu and early Meiji period of Japanese history. He was a leader of Freedom and People's Rights Movement which would evolve into a political party