Died in 1838

Jan 3 Maximilian Hereditary Prince of Saxony German prince and a member of the House of Wettin.
Jan 7 Josef Grassi an Austrian portrait and history painter. His middle name is usually given as "Maria", although there is evidence that it was actually "Mathias". He is also called "Giuseppe Grassi"
Jan 13 Ferdinand Ries a German composer. Ries was a friend, pupil and secretary of Ludwig van Beethoven. He composed eight symphonies, a violin concerto, eight piano concertos and numerous other works in many genres, including 26 string quartets. In 1838 he published a collection of reminiscences of his teacher Beethoven, co-written with Franz Wegeler. The symphonies, some chamber works—most of them with piano— his violin concerto and his piano concertos have been recorded, demonstrating a style which is, unsurprising due to his connection to Beethoven, somewhere between those of the Classical and early Romantic eras
Jan 28 Sophie von Dönhoff a German lady-in-waiting and a morganatic spouse by bigamy to King Frederick William II of Prussia.
Jan 28 Alexander Polezhayev a controversial Russian poet, best known for his satirical poem Sashka which in 1826 resulted in his being demoted to the Caucasian Army, by a special decree of Nicolas I who's taken this daring challenge as a continuation of the Decemberists' revolt. Polezhayev continued to write satires and in the early 1830s became close to the radicals, one of whom, Alexander Hertzen, later remembered him with great warmth in his book of memoirs My Past and Thoughts. A volatile and rebellious character prone to heavy drinking, Polezhayev got involved in a series of incidents, the last of which resulted in his being punished by flogging so severe, fragments of twigs had to be extracted surgically form his back. After that, in the course of several months, Alexander Polezhayev fell ill with tuberculosis and died
Jan 30 Osceola born as Billy Powell, became an influential leader of the Seminole in Florida. Of mixed parentage, Creek, Scots-Irish, and English, he was raised as a Creek by his mother, as the tribe had a matrilineal kinship system. They migrated to Florida when he was a child, with other Red Stick refugees, after their defeat in 1814 in the Creek Wars
Feb 1 José Gregorio Salazar a general and a Liberal politician in Central America. He was acting president of the Federal Republic of Central America from September 16, 1834 to February 14, 1835, in between two administrations of Francisco Morazán. In 1838 he was assassinated by a mob supporting rebel General Rafael Carrera
Feb 6 Piet Retief a South African Boer leader. Settling in 1814 in the frontier region of the Cape Colony, he assumed command of punitive expeditions in response to raiding parties from the adjacent Xhosa territory. He became a spokesperson for the frontier farmers who voiced their discontent, and wrote the Voortrekkers' declaration at their departure from the colony
Feb 21 Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy a French linguist and orientalist. His son, Ustazade Silvestre de Sacy, became a journalist
Feb 24 Christoph Johann von Medem nobleman from Courland and courtier in the courts of Prussian kings Frederick the Great, Frederick William II and Emperor of Russia Paul His sisters were poet Elisa von der Recke and last Duchess of Courland, Dorothea von Medem.
Feb 28 Charles Thévenin a neoclassical French painter, known for heroic scenes from the time of the French Revolution and First French Empire.
Mar 1 Johann Friedrich Adam a botanist from Petersburg, Russia.
Mar 2 Ludwig Abeille a German pianist and composer.
Mar 6 Jean Armand Charlemagne a French dramatic author.
Mar 7 Robert Townsend (spy) a member of the Culper Ring during the American Revolution. With the aliases “Samuel Culper, Jr.” and “723,” Townsend operated in New York City and gathered information as a service to General George Washington. He is one of the least known operatives in the spy ring, once demanding that Abraham Woodhull, aka “Samuel Culper,” never tell his name to anyone, not even Washington
Mar 16 Nathaniel Bowditch an early American mathematician remembered for his work on ocean navigation. He is often credited as the founder of modern maritime navigation; his book The New American Practical Navigator, first published in 1802, is still carried on board every commissioned U.S. Naval vessel
Mar 19 Edward Barnes (British Army officer) a British soldier who became governor of Ceylon.
Mar 24 Thomas Attwood (composer) an English composer and organist.
Mar 26 William Henry Ashley an American pioneering fur trader, entrepreneur, and politician. Though a native of Virginia, Ashley had already moved to Ste. Genevieve in what was then called Louisiana, when it was purchased by the United States from France in 1803. That land, later known as Missouri, became Ashley's home for most of his adult life. Ashley moved to Louis around 1808 and became a Brigadier General in the Missouri Militia during the War of 1812. Before the war he did some real estate speculation and earned a small fortune manufacturing gunpowder from a lode of saltpeter mined in a cave near the headwaters of Missouri's Current river. When Missouri was admitted to the Union Ashley was elected its first Lieutenant Governor, serving from 1820 to 1824 under Governor Alexander McNair. He ran for governor of Missouri in the August 1824 election, but was defeated
Mar 30 Frédéric-César de La Harpe a Swiss political leader and Vaudois patriot, who played a leading role in the creation of the Helvetic Republic.
Apr 3 François Carlo Antommarchi Napoleon's physician from 1818 to his death in 1821.
Apr 6 José Bonifácio de Andrada a Brazilian statesman, naturalist, professor and poet, born in Santos, São Paulo, then part of the Portuguese Empire. He was one of the most important mentors of Brazilian independence, and his actions were decisive for the success of Emperor Pedro He supported public education, was an abolitionist and suggested that a new national capital be created in Brazil's underdeveloped interior. His career as naturalist was marked by the discovery of four new minerals
Apr 7 John Hayes (Royal Navy officer) a prominent British Royal Navy officer of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Hayes was best known for his skill at seamanship and his interest in the design and construction of naval vessels, beginning with his childhood education at Deptford Dockyard where his uncle Adam was a master shipbuilder. During his naval service he participated in the first and the last significant frigate actions of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, from the inconclusive engagement between Embuscade and HMS Boston in 1793 and the capture of USS President in 1815. After the war's end, Hayes was appointed as superintendent of HMNB Devonport and later was commander in chief off West Africa
Apr 17 Johanna Schopenhauer a German author. She is today known primarily for being the mother of Arthur Schopenhauer
Apr 22 Johan Baptist Spanoghe a Dutch botanical collector of Belgian parentage.
May 10 Heinrich Marx a lawyer and the father of the socialist philosopher Karl Marx.
May 11 Thomas Andrew Knight Coordinates: 52°22′01″N 2°49′01″W / 52.367°N 2.817°W / 52.367; -2.817.
May 11 Ignaz von Rudhart a Bavarian scholar and public servant who was dispatched to Greece to serve as President of the Privy Council during the reign of King Otto.
May 12 Jędrzej Śniadecki a Polish writer, physician, chemist and biologist. His achievements include the creation of modern Polish terminology in the field of chemistry
May 17 René Caillié a French explorer and the first European to return alive from the town of Timbuktu.
May 17 Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord a French bishop, politician and diplomat. Due to a lame leg, he was not able to start a military career as expected by his family. Instead, he studied theology. In 1780 he became Agent-General of the Clergy and represented the Catholic Church to the French Crown. He worked successfully at the highest level for the regime of Louis XVI, through several governments of the French Revolution and then for Napoleon, Louis XVIII, Charles X, and Louis-Philippe. Most of them distrusted Talleyrand but, like Napoleon, found him indispensable. The name "Talleyrand" has become a synonym for crafty, cynical diplomacy
May 19 Sir Richard Hoare 2nd Baronet an English antiquarian, archaeologist, artist, and traveller of the 18th and 19th centuries, the first major figure in the detailed study of the history of his home county, Wiltshire.
May 23 Jan Willem Janssens a Dutch nobleman, soldier and statesman who served both as the governor of the Cape Colony and governor-general of the Dutch East Indies.
Jun 4 Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest a French zoologist and author. He was the son of Nicolas Desmarest and father of Anselme Sébastien Léon Desmarest. Desmarest was a disciple of Georges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniart, and in 1815, he succeeded Pierre André Latreille to the professorship of zoology at the École nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort. In 1820 he was elected to the Académie Nationale de Médecine
Jun 7 Laure Junot Duchess of Abrantes a French writer. She was the spouse of French general Jean-Andoche Junot
Jun 25 François-Nicolas-Benoît Haxo a French Army general and military engineer during the French Revolution and First Empire. Haxo became famous in the Siege of Antwerp in 1832. He is the nephew of revolution era General Nicolas Haxo of Étival-Clairefontaine and Saint-Dié-des-Vosges in Lorraine, France
Jun 28 Friedrich Accum a German chemist, whose most important achievements included advances in the field of gas lighting, efforts to keep processed foods free from dangerous additives, and the promotion of interest in the science of chemistry to the general populace. From 1793 to 1821 Accum lived in London. Following an apprenticeship as an apothecary, he opened his own commercial laboratory enterprise. His business manufactured and sold a variety of chemicals and laboratory equipment. Accum, himself, gave fee based public lectures in practical chemistry and collaborated with research efforts at numerous other institutes of science
Jul 5 Jean Marc Gaspard Itard a French physician born in Provence.
Jul 12 Isatay Taymanuly a Kazakh hero and leader of a rebellion against Zhangir-Kerey Khan of Bokey Horde and the Russian rulers of Kazakhstan in the 19th century.
Jul 19 Pierre Louis Dulong a French physicist and chemist, remembered today largely for the law of Dulong and Petit. He worked on the specific heat capacity and the expansion and refractive indices of gases
Jul 21 Johann Nepomuk Maelzel a German inventor, engineer, and showman, best known for manufacturing a metronome and several music automatons, and displaying a fraudulent chess machine.
Jul 24 Frédéric Cuvier a French zoologist. He was the younger brother of noted naturalist and zoologist Georges Cuvier
Jul 25 Dmitry Ivanovich Lobanov-Rostovsky Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Lobanov-Rostovsky , Russian Prince, statesman and military leader.
Jul 28 Bernhard Crusell a Swedish-Finnish clarinetist, composer and translator, "the most significant and internationally best-known Finnish-born classical composer and indeed, — the outstanding Finnish composer before Sibelius".
Aug 15 John Kirby Allen a co-founder of the city of Houston and a former member of the Republic of Texas House of Representatives. He was born in Canaseraga Village, New York. He never married. He died of congestive fever on August 15, 1838, and was buried at Founders Memorial Cemetery in Houston
Aug 17 Lorenzo Da Ponte a Venetian opera librettist and poet. He wrote the librettos for 28 operas by 11 composers, including three of Mozart's greatest operas, Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro and Così fan tutte
Aug 17 José Miguel Pey de Andrade a Colombian statesman and soldier and a leader of the independence movement from Spain. He is considered the first vice president and first president of Colombia. He was a centralist
Aug 21 Adelbert von Chamisso a German poet and botanist. He wrote Peter Schlemihl, a famous story about a man who sold his shadow
Aug 24 Ferenc Kölcsey a Hungarian poet, literary critic, orator, and politician, noted for his support of the liberal current inside the Habsburg Empire. He wrote the national anthem of Hungary in 1823
Sep 1 William Clark (explorer) an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor. A native of Virginia, he grew up in prestatehood Kentucky before later settling in what became the state of Missouri. Clark was a planter and slaveholder