Born in 1840

Jan 3 Father Damien a Roman Catholic priest from Belgium and member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, a missionary religious institute. He won recognition for his ministry in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi to people with leprosy , who had been placed under a government-sanctioned medical quarantine on the island of Molokaʻi
Jan 10 Louis-Nazaire Bégin a Canadian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Quebec from 1898 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1914
Jan 12 Francis M. Lyman a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He was the President of the Quorum from 1903 until his death
Jan 13 Louis van Waefelghem a Belgian violinist, violist and one of the greatest viola d'amore players of the 19th century. He also composed several works and made transcriptions for viola and viola d'amore
Jan 14 Hilarión Daza President of Bolivia from 1876 to 1879.
Jan 17 Stefan Bobrowski a Polish 19th-century politician and an activist for Polish independence. Bobrowski was a participant in the January Uprising and was one of the leaders of the "Red" faction among the insurrectionists as a member of the Central National Committee and the Provisional National Government. He advocated land reform and an end to serfdom in order to rally peasants to the cause, while at the same time he tried to ensure support of the szlachta. He also tried to establish links with potential revolutionaries within Russia who opposed the Tsar. He died in 1863 in a duel with a member of the "White" faction, Count Adam Grabowski, to which he agreed but which he was sure to lose, on account of his extreme near-sightedness
Jan 18 Alfred Percy Sinnett an English author and theosophist.
Jan 18 Ernst Rudorff a German composer and music teacher, also a founder of nature protection movement.
Jan 18 Henry Austin Dobson an English poet and essayist.
Jan 22 Ernest Wilberforce an Anglican clergyman and bishop. From 1882 to 1896 he was the first Anglican Bishop of Newcastle upon the diocese's creation, and from 1896 to 1907 he was Bishop of Chichester
Jan 23 Ernst Abbe a German physicist, optical scientist, entrepreneur, and social reformer. Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modern optics. Abbe developed numerous optical instruments. He was a co-owner of Carl Zeiss AG, a German manufacturer of research microscopes, astronomical telescopes, planetariums and other optical systems
Jan 28 Frank Bell (governor) an American politician. He was the sixth Governor of Nevada. He was a member of the Republican Party
Feb 2 Otto Liebmann a German philosopher.
Feb 4 Lars Olsen Skrefsrud a Norwegian missionary and language researcher in India. Together with Hans Peter Børresen he is regarded as the founder of the Norwegian missionary organization Santalmisjonen. He was followed by the missionary, linguist and folklorist Paul Olaf Bodding. He studied at the missionary school of Johannes Evangelista Goßner in Berlin, where he was prepared for his mission
Feb 5 Hiram Maxim an American inventor who moved to the United Kingdom at the age of 41. He remained an American citizen until he became a naturalized British subject in 1900. He was the inventor of the Maxim Gun – the first portable, fully automatic machine gun – and held patents on mechanical devices such as a mousetrap, hair-curling irons, and steam pumps. He laid claim to inventing the lightbulb, and even experimented with powered flight, but his large aircraft designs were never successful. However, his "Captive Flying Machine" amusement ride, designed as a means by which to fund his research while generating public interest in flight, was highly successful
Feb 5 John Boyd Dunlop a British inventor. He was one of the founders of the rubber company that bore his name, Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company
Feb 7 Charles Warren an officer in the British Royal Engineers. He was one of the earliest European archaeologists of Biblical Holy Land, and particularly of Temple Mount. Much of his military service was spent in the British South Africa, but in earlier life he was Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police, from 1886 to 1888, during the period of the Jack the Ripper murders. His command in combat during the Second Boer War was criticised, but he achieved considerable success during his long life in his military and civil posts
Feb 10 Per Teodor Cleve a Swedish chemist, biologist, mineralogist, oceanographer, and professor. He discovered the chemical elements holmium and thulium and helped isolate helium from the uranium ore cleveite. Cleve was born in Stockholm and became an assistant professor at the Uppsala University in 1860. He died several months after contracting pleurisy in 1904
Feb 12 Richard Carroll (jeweller) an English jeweller, best known for taking the lead in organization of first "Jewellery Show" exhibitions in Birmingham. Among Carroll's most important customers were Queen Victoria and Edward VII
Feb 15 Titu Maiorescu a Romanian literary critic and politician, founder of the Junimea Society. As a literary critic, he was instrumental in the development of Romanian culture in the second half of the 19th century
Feb 22 August Bebel a German socialist politician, writer, and orator. He is best remembered as one of the founders of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany in 1869, which in 1875 merged with the General German Workers' Association into the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany. During the repression under the terms of the Anti-Socialist Laws, Bebel became the leading figure of the social democratic movement in Germany and from 1892 until his death served as chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Feb 23 Carl Menger the founder of the Austrian School of economics. Menger contributed to the development of the theory of marginalism, , which rejected the cost-of-production theories of value, such as were developed by the classical economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo
Feb 23 Vsevolod Krestovsky a Russian writer who worked in the city mysteries genre.
Feb 23 Frederick Wicks an English author and inventor, whose book The British Constitution and Government was first published in 1871 and ran to several editions. He was born in Stockwell, Surrey, the youngest son of Samuel Wicks , a corn dealer, & Mary Wicks
Feb 26 Eugene Schuyler a nineteenth-century American scholar, writer, explorer and diplomat. Schuyler was of the first three Americans to earn a Ph.D. from an American university; and the first American translator of Ivan Turgenev and Lev Tolstoi. He was the first American diplomat to visit Russian Central Asia, and as American Consul General in Constantinople he played a key role in publicizing Turkish atrocities in Bulgaria in 1876 during the April Uprising. He was the first American Minister to Romania and Serbia, and U.S. Minister to Greece
Feb 28 Henri Duveyrier a French explorer of the Sahara born in Paris. In 1857 and 1858, he spent some months in London, where he met Heinrich Barth, then preparing the narrative of his travels in the western Sudan. At the age of nineteen Duveyrier, who had already learned Arabic, began a journey in the northern parts of the Sahara which lasted nearly three years. In 1864, two years after returning to France, he published Exploration du Sahara: les Touareg du nord , for which he received the gold medal of the Paris Geographical Society. In the war of 1870 he was taken prisoner by the Germans. Subsequently he made several other journeys in the Sahara, adding considerably to the knowledge of the regions immediately south of the Atlas, from the eastern confines of Morocco to Tunisia. He also examined the Algerian and Tunisian shats and explored the interior of western Tripoli. Duveyrier devoted special attention to the customs and speech of the Tuareg people, with whom he lived for months at a time, and to the organization of the Senussi. In 1881 he published La Tunisie, and in 1884 La confrérie musulmane de Sîdî Mohammed ben Alî-Senoûsi et son domaine géographique en l'année 1300 de l'Hégire. He died in Sèvres in 1892
Feb 29 William Harvey Carney an African American soldier during the American Civil War. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Fort Wagner
Feb 29 John Philip Holland an Irish engineer who developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the U.S. Navy, and the first Royal Navy submarine, the Holland 1
Mar 2 Eduard Kurzbauer an Austrian painter. Some sources give Lemberg as his place of birth
Mar 3 Chief Joseph Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt, Hinmatóowyalahtq̓it in Americanist orthography, popularly known as Chief Joseph, or Young Joseph , succeeded his father Tuekakas as the leader of the Wal-lam-wat-kain band of Nez Perce, a Native American tribe indigenous to the Wallowa Valley in northeastern Oregon, in the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Mar 8 Franco Faccio an Italian composer and conductor. Born in Verona, he studied music at the Milan Conservatory from 1855 where he was a pupil of Stefano Ronchetti-Monteviti and, as scholar William Ashbrook notes, "where he struck up a lifelong friendship with Arrigo Boito, two years his junior" and with whom he was to collaborate in many ways
Mar 9 Henri Cazalis a French physician who was a symbolist poet and man of letters and wrote under the pseudonyms of Jean Caselli and Jean Lahor. To describe several of his artist friends who were avant-garde painters he coined the term Les Nabis. The term drew a parallel between the way these painters aimed to revitalize painting and the way the ancient prophets had rejuvenated Israel. Possibly the nickname arose because "most of them wore beards, some were Jews and all were desperately earnest"
Mar 10 Frank North an American interpreter, United States Army officer and politician. He is most well known for organizing and leading the Pawnee Scouts from 1865 to 1877
Mar 11 Ralph Tate a British-born botanist and geologist, who was later active in Australia.
Mar 16 Georg von der Gabelentz a German general linguist and sinologist. His Chinesische Grammatik , according to a critic, "remains until today recognized as probably the finest overall grammatical survey of the Classical Chinese language to date."
Mar 16 Shibusawa Eiichi a Japanese industrialist widely known today as the "father of Japanese capitalism". He spearheaded the introduction of Western capitalism to Japan after the Meiji Restoration. He introduced many economic reforms including use of double entry accounting, joint stock corporations and modern note-issuing banks
Mar 17 Henri Didon a French Dominican writer, and educator, and reputedly the greatest French preacher of his day.
Mar 18 William Cosmo Monkhouse English poet and critic.
Mar 20 Franz Mertens a German mathematician. He was born in Schroda in the Grand Duchy of Posen, Kingdom of Prussia and died in Vienna, Austria
Mar 20 Illarion Pryanishnikov a Russian painter, one of the founders of the Peredvizhniki artistic cooperative.
Mar 21 Francišak Bahuševič a Belarusian poet, writer and lawyer, considered to be one of the initiators of modern Belarusian literature.
Mar 25 Myles Keogh an Irish soldier. Serving the armies of the Papal States during a rebellion in Italy, he was recruited into the Union Army during the American Civil War, serving as a cavalry officer, particularly under Brig. Gen. John Buford during the Gettysburg Campaign and the three-day battle that ensued. After the war, Keogh remained in the regular United States Army as commander of Company I in the 7th Cavalry Regiment under George Armstrong Custer during the Indian Wars, until he was killed along with Custer and all of his men at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876
Mar 26 George Smith (Assyriologist) a pioneering English Assyriologist who first discovered and translated the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the oldest-known written works of literature.
Mar 27 George Fisher Baker a U.S. financier and philanthropist.
Mar 28 Emin Pasha an Ottoman-German physician, naturalist, and governor of the Egyptian province of Equatoria on the upper Nile. The Ottoman Empire conferred the title "Pasha" on him in 1886, and thereafter he was referred to as "Emin Pasha"
Mar 31 Benjamin Baker (engineer) an eminent English civil engineer who worked in mid to late Victorian era. He helped develop the early underground railways in London with Sir John Fowler, but he is best known for his work on the Forth Bridge. He made many other notable contributions to civil engineering, including his work as an expert witness at the public inquiry into the Tay Rail Bridge disaster. Later, he helped design and build the first Aswan dam
Apr 2 Émile Zola a French writer, the most well-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus, which is encapsulated in the renowned newspaper headline J'accuse. Zola was nominated for the first and second Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901 and 1902
Apr 3 Nikolai Ishutin one of the first Russian utopian socialists, who combined socialist propaganda with conspiratorial and terrorist tactics.
Apr 5 Ghazaros Aghayan an Armenian writer, educator, folklorist, historian, linguist and public figure.
Apr 6 Wilhelm Junker a Russian explorer of Africa. Junker was of German descent