Born in 1841

Jan 1 Josef Finger an Austrian physicist and mathematician.
Jan 1 Jovan Avakumović a lawyer, politician, and Prime Minister of Serbia.
Jan 2 Émile Amagat a French physicist. His doctoral thesis, published in 1872, expanded on the work of Thomas Andrews, and included plots of the isotherms of carbon dioxide at high pressures. Amagat published a paper in 1877 that contradicted the current understanding at the time, concluding that the coefficient of compressibility of fluids decreased with increasing pressure. He continued to publish data on isotherms for a number of different gases between 1879 and 1882, and invented the hydraulic manometer, which was able to withstand up to 3200 atmospheres, as opposed to 400 atmospheres using a glass apparatus. In 1880 he published his Law of Partial Volumes
Jan 10 George W. Melville an engineer, Arctic explorer and author. As chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering, he headed a time of great expansion, technological progress and change, often in defiance of the conservative element of the Navy hierarchy. He superintended the design of 120 ships and introduced the water-tube boiler, the triple-screw propulsion system, vertical engines, the floating repair ship, and the "distilling ship." Appointed Engineer in Chief of the Navy, Melville reformed the service entirely, putting Navy engineers on a professional rather than an artisan footing
Jan 11 Otto von Gierke a German lawyer and historian. In his four volume magnum opus entitled, Das deutsche Genossenschaftsrecht , he pioneered the study of social groups, and the importance of associations in German life, which stood between the divide of private and public law. During his career at the Berlin University's law department, Gierke was a leading critic of the newly drafted German Civil Code, arguing that it had been moulded in an individualistic frame that was inconsistent with German social traditions
Jan 14 Berthe Morisot a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. She was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Mary Cassatt
Jan 15 Frederick Stanley 16th Earl of Derby a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who served as Colonial Secretary from 1885 to 1886 and the sixth Governor General of Canada from 1888 to 1893. An avid sportsman, he built Stanley House Stables in England, and is most famous for presenting the Stanley Cup in Canada. Stanley was a Freemason
Jan 15 Charles Augustus Briggs born in New York City, the son of Alanson Briggs and Sarah Mead Berrian. He was excommunicated from the Presbyterian Church because of his liberal theology regarding the Bible
Jan 18 Emmanuel Chabrier a French Romantic composer and pianist. Although known primarily for two of his orchestral works, España and Joyeuse marche, he left an important corpus of operas , songs, and piano music. He was admired by composers as diverse as Debussy, Ravel, Richard Strauss, Satie, Schmitt, Stravinsky, and the group of composers known as Les six. Stravinsky alluded to España in his ballet Petrushka; Gustav Mahler called España "the beginnings of modern music" and alluded to the "Dance Villageoise" in the Rondo Burleske movement of his Ninth Symphony. Ravel wrote that the opening bars of Le roi malgré lui changed the course of harmony in France, Poulenc wrote a biography of the composer, and Richard Strauss conducted the first staged performance of Chabrier's incomplete opera Briséïs
Jan 20 Eduard Albert a Czech surgeon, professor and historian.
Jan 21 Édouard Schuré a French philosopher, poet, playwright, novelist, music critic, and publicist of esoteric literature.
Jan 23 Benoît-Constant Coquelin a French actor, "one of the greatest theatrical figures of the age.".
Jan 23 Sigismund Bachrich a Hungarian composer of Jewish origin, violinist, and violist.
Jan 24 Robert Williams (archer) an American archer who competed in the early twentieth century. He won two silver medals in Archery at the 1904 Summer Olympics in Missouri in the double york and American rounds. In the team competition he won the gold medal
Jan 25 John Fisher 1st Baron Fisher a British admiral known for his efforts at naval reform. He had a huge influence on the Royal Navy in a career spanning more than 60 years, starting in a navy of wooden sailing ships armed with muzzle-loading cannon and ending in one of steel-hulled battlecruisers, submarines and the first aircraft carriers. The argumentative, energetic, reform-minded Fisher is often considered the second most important figure in British naval history, after Lord Nelson
Jan 26 Franziskus von Sales Bauer an Austro-Hungarian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Olomouc from 1904 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1911
Jan 28 Henry Morton Stanley a Welsh journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for missionary and explorer David Livingstone. Upon finding Livingstone, Stanley allegedly asked, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Stanley is also known for his discovery of the source of the Nile, his work in and development of the Congo Basin region in association with King Leopold II of Belgium and for commanding the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. He was knighted in 1899 by Great Britain
Jan 28 Viktor Nessler an Alsatian composer who worked mainly in Leipzig.
Jan 28 Vasily Klyuchevsky a leading Russian historian of the late imperial period.
Jan 30 Sam Loyd an American chess player, chess composer, puzzle author, and recreational mathematician.
Jan 30 Félix Faure President of France from 1895 until his death.
Feb 2 François-Alphonse Forel thus considered the founder of limnology.
Feb 8 José Sebastião de Almeida Neto a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Patriarch of Lisbon.
Feb 10 Bartolo Longo a self-described Satanist priest, who later repented and became a third order, lay Dominican, dedicating his life to the Virgin Mary. He was eventually awarded a papal knighthood
Feb 10 Eugen Dücker a romanticist Baltic German painter.
Feb 10 Walter Parratt an English organist and composer.
Feb 11 Adolfo Farsari an Italian photographer based in Yokohama, Japan. Following a brief military career, including service in the American Civil War, he became a successful entrepreneur and commercial photographer. His photographic work was highly regarded, particularly his hand-coloured portraits and landscapes, which he sold mostly to foreign residents and visitors to the country. Farsari's images were widely distributed, presented or mentioned in books and periodicals, and sometimes recreated by artists in other media; they shaped foreign perceptions of the people and places of Japan and to some degree affected how Japanese saw themselves and their country. His studio, the last notable foreign-owned studio in Japan, was one of the country's largest and most prolific commercial photographic firms. Largely due to Farsari's exacting technical standards and his entrepreneurial abilities it had a significant influence on the development of photography in Japan
Feb 11 Ioan D. Caragiani a Romanian folklorist and translator. He was one of the founding members of the Romanian Academy
Feb 11 Józef Brandt a Polish painter, best known for his paintings of battles.
Feb 12 Laza Kostić a Serbian poet, prose writer, lawyer, philosopher, polyglot, publicist, and politician, considered to be one of the greatest minds of Serbian literature. He devoted himself to writing poetry and to translating from European languages. He promoted the study of English and was among the first with Jovan Andrejević-Joles to begin the systematic translation of Shakespeare into Serbian
Feb 13 Theodor Wolf a German naturalist who studied the Galápagos Islands during the late nineteenth century. Wolf Island is named after him. The wolf volcano on Isabela Island was also named after him. He was born at Bartholomä
Feb 15 Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales a Brazilian lawyer, coffee farmer and politician. He served as a provincial deputy three times, general-deputy once, and also as minister of justice , senator and governor of São Paulo. The pinnacle of his political career was his election as president of Brazil, an office he held between 1898 and 1902. Austere financial reforms were adopted during his tenure
Feb 16 Armand Guillaumin a French impressionist painter and lithographer.
Feb 18 Gergely Luthár a Slovene landowner, notary and writer in Hungary.
Feb 19 Elfrida Andrée a Swedish organist, composer, and conductor.
Feb 24 Edmund Russow a Baltic German biologist born in Tallinn , in present-day Estonia.
Feb 24 Carl Gräbe a German industrial and academic chemist from Frankfurt am Main who held professorships in his field at Leipzig, Königsberg, and Geneva. He is known for the first synthesis of the economically important dye, alizarin, with Liebermann, and for contributing to the fundamental nomenclature of organic chemistry
Feb 25 Pierre-Auguste Renoir a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau."
Feb 26 Evelyn Baring 1st Earl of Cromer a British statesman, diplomat and colonial administrator. He was British controller-general in Egypt during 1879, part of the international Control which oversaw Egyptian finances after the khedives' mismanagement, and during the British occupation prompted by the Urabi revolt, agent and consul-general in Egypt from 1883 to 1907. Far from the centre of the Empire, Cromer ran the territory with great drive and his effective governance inhibited British intentions to withdraw from Egypt
Feb 28 Jean Mounet-Sully born at Bergerac. His birth name was Jean-Sully Mounet: "Mounet-Sully" was a stage name
Mar 3 John Murray (oceanographer) a pioneering Scottish oceanographer, marine biologist and limnologist.
Mar 6 Viktor Burenin a Russian literary and theater critic, publicist, novelist, dramatist, translator and satirical poet notorious for his confrontational articles and satirical poems, mostly targeting leftist writers. He was the author of several popular plays , novels and opera librettos
Mar 6 Marie Alfred Cornu a French physicist. The French generally refer to him as Alfred Cornu
Mar 7 William Rockhill Nelson a real estate developer and founder of The Kansas City Star. He donated his estate for the establishment of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
Mar 8 Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States January–February 1930. Noted for his long service, his concise and pithy opinions and his deference to the decisions of elected legislatures, he is one of the most widely cited United States Supreme Court justices in history, particularly for his "clear and present danger" opinion for a unanimous Court in the 1919 case of Schenck United States, and is one of the most influential American common law judges, honored during his lifetime in Great Britain as well as the United States. Holmes retired from the Court at the age of 90 years, 309 days, making him the oldest Justice in the Supreme Court's history. He also served as an Associate Justice and as Chief Justice on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, and was Weld Professor of Law at the Harvard Law School, of which he was an alumnus
Mar 8 Valentí Almirall i Llozer a Catalan politician, considered one of the fathers of modern Catalan nationalism, and more specifically, of the left-winged nationalism.
Mar 10 Ina Coolbrith an American poet, writer, librarian, and a prominent figure in the San Francisco Bay Area literary community. Called the "Sweet Singer of California", she was the first California Poet Laureate and the first poet laureate of any American state
Mar 11 Luigi Luzzatti an Italian political figure and served as the 31st Prime Minister of Italy between 1910 and 1911. He was Italy's second Jewish prime minister after Alessandro Fortis, though predecessor Sidney Sonnino was of partial Jewish ancestry
Mar 17 William Leigh Williamson Eyre an English mycologist and naturalist.
Mar 28 Prince Alfonso Count of Caserta the third son of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria.