Born in 1842

Jan 1 Charlotte Mason a British educator who invested her life in improving the quality of education in England at the turn of the twentieth century. Her revolutionary methods led to a shift from utilitarian education to the education of a child upon living ideas. She based much of her early philosophy on current brain research, on the writings of John Amos Comenius, Matthew Arnold, John Ruskin, and others, and on the collaborative efforts of those whose beliefs about education she admired, as well as her vast experience as both a teacher and a trainer and mentor for new teachers
Jan 1 William M. Bunn an American newspaperman and Governor of Idaho Territory from 1884 to 1885. He began his political career holding a series of local and state offices while serving as a member of a local political machine. After purchasing a Philadelphia newspaper, he traded positive coverage for political favors. At the same time Bunn cultivated an active social life and became known for his after dinner speeches. During his tenure as governor, Bunn was caught between competing factions within his party fighting over polygamy and concerns with the territory's Mormon population
Jan 6 Clarence King an American geologist, mountaineer, and author. He served as the first director of the United States Geological Survey from 1879 to 1881. King was noted for his exploration of the Sierra Nevada
Jan 10 Luigi Pigorini an Italian palaeoethnologist, archaeologist and ethnographer.
Jan 11 William James an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician. The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States, James was one of the leading thinkers of the late nineteenth century and is believed by many to be one of the most influential philosophers the United States has ever produced, while others have labelled him the "Father of American psychology". Along with Charles Sanders Peirce and John Dewey, he is considered to be one of the major figures associated with the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology. He also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. James' work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, E. Du Bois, Edmund Husserl, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hilary Putnam, and Richard Rorty
Jan 11 Louis Delaporte a French explorer and artist, whose collection and documentation of Khmer art formed the nucleus of exhibitions in Paris, originally at the 1878 Paris Exposition and later at the Palais du Trocadéro, where he became chief curator of the Musée Indochinois. In 1927, after his death, his collection was moved to the Guimet Museum
Jan 12 Teoberto Maler an explorer who devoted his energies to documenting the ruins of the Maya civilization.
Jan 13 Alfred Yarrow a British shipbuilder who started a shipbuilding dynasty, Yarrow Shipbuilders.
Jan 15 Alfred Jean Baptiste Lemaire a French military musician and composer who went to Iran in 1868, during the reign of King Nasser-al-Din Shah to train the staff of the music department of Dar ul-Funun. He was the composer of the first Iranian national anthem
Jan 15 Paul Lafargue a French revolutionary Marxist socialist journalist, literary critic, political writer and activist; he was Karl Marx's son-in-law having married his second daughter, Laura. His best known work is The Right to Be Lazy. Born in Cuba to French and Creole parents, Lafargue spent most of his life in France, with periods in England and Spain. At the age of 69, he and 66-year-old Laura died together in a suicide pact
Jan 15 Josef Breuer a distinguished Austrian physician who made key discoveries in neurophysiology, and whose work in the 1880s with a patient known as Anna developed the talking cure and laid the foundation to psychoanalysis as developed by his protégé Sigmund Freud.
Jan 15 Mary MacKillop an Australian nun who has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church. Of Scottish descent, she was born in Melbourne, but was best known for her activities in South Australia. Together with Reverend Julian Tenison Woods, she founded the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart , a congregation of religious sisters that established a number of schools and welfare institutions throughout Australasia, with an emphasis on education for the rural poor
Jan 17 Vasily Avseenko a Russian literary critic, writer and journalist.
Jan 18 A. A. Ames Albert Alonzo "Doc" Ames held four non-consecutive terms as mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Ames was known for his service to his country and assistance of the poor, sometimes giving medical treatment to those who could not afford However, he became exceedingly more famous by creating the most corrupt government in the city's history. The story became known across the United States when muckraking journalist Lincoln Steffens wrote an article in 1903 about the corruption and the efforts of a local grand jury to stop The article, The Shame of Minneapolis, was later included in a collection of similar exposes in the book The Shame of the Cities, published in 1906
Jan 19 George Trumbull Ladd an American philosopher, educator and psychologist.
Jan 21 Agustín Stahl a Puerto Rican medical doctor and scientist with diverse interests in the fields of ethnology, botany, and zoology. He advocated Puerto Rico's independence from Spain
Jan 21 Alferd Packer an American prospector who confessed to cannibalism during the winter of 1873-1874. He and 5 other men attempted to travel through the high mountains of Colorado during the peak of a harsh winter. They ran out of food when the snow became too deep for travel. Alfred confessed to eating some of his companions and using their flesh to survive his trek out of the mountains two months later. He hid from justice for 9 years before being tried and convicted of murder and sentenced to death. Packer won a retrial and was eventually sentenced to 40 years in prison for manslaughter. A biopic of his life, The Legend of Alfred Packer, was made in 1980
Jan 25 Vilhelm Thomsen a Danish linguist and Turkologist. He initially began studying theology at the Danish University in 1859, but soon switched his focus to philology. He learned Hungarian and Finnish, and received his doctoral degree in 1869 with a dissertation on Germanic loanwords in Finnic. He taught Greek at the Borgerdyd school in Copenhagen before becoming a professor at the University of Copenhagen; among his students at the university was Otto Jespersen
Jan 26 François Coppée a French poet and novelist.
Jan 27 Arkhip Kuindzhi a Russian landscape painter of Greek origin.
Jan 31 Marie-Charles David de Mayréna now southern Vietnam.
Feb 1 Princess Alexandrine of Prussia (1842–1906) a member of the House of Hohenzollern as the daughter of Prince Albert of Prussia and his wife Princess Marianne of the Netherlands.
Feb 2 Julian Sochocki a Russian-Polish mathematician. His name is sometimes transliterated from Russian in several different ways
Feb 3 Sidney Lanier an American musician, poet and author. He served in the Confederate army, worked on a blockade running ship for which he was imprisoned , taught, worked at a hotel where he gave musical performances, was a church organist, and worked as a lawyer. As a poet he used dialects. He became a flautist and sold poems to publications. He eventually became a university professor and is known for his adaptation of musical meter to poetry. Many schools, other structures and two lakes are named for him
Feb 4 Victor von Ebner an Austrian anatomist and histologist who was a native of Bregenz.
Feb 4 Hugo Schuchardt an eminent linguist, best known for his work in the Romance languages, the Basque language, and in mixed languages, including pidgins, creoles, and the Lingua franca of the Mediterranean.
Feb 4 Georg Brandes a Danish critic and scholar who had great influence on Scandinavian and European literature from the 1870s through the turn of the 20th century. He is seen as the theorist behind the "Modern Breakthrough" of Scandinavian culture. At the age of 30, Brandes formulated the principles of a new realism and naturalism, condemning hyper-aesthetic writing and fantasy in literature. According to Brandes, literature should be an organ "of the great thoughts of liberty and the progress of humanity". His literary goals were shared by many authors, among them the Norwegian realist playwright Henrik Ibsen
Feb 6 Alfred-Amédée Dodds a French General, commander of French forces in Sénégal from 1890, commander of French forces in the second expeditionary force to suppress The Boxer Rebellion, and commander of French forces during the Second Franco-Dahomean War. As both an octoroon and a metis, he was famed in the African Diaspora at the beginning of the Twentieth century as an example of African leadership, despite the fact that he led the destruction of one of West Africa's most powerful pre-colonial states
Feb 6 Mary Rudge an English female chess master.
Feb 7 Alexandre Ribot a French politician, four times Prime Minister.
Feb 8 Sir John Brunner 1st Baronet a British chemical industrialist and Liberal Party politician. At Hutchinson's alkali works in Widnes he rose to the position of general manager. There he met Ludwig Mond, whom he later formed a partnership with to create the chemical company Brunner Mond & Co., initially making alkali by the Solvay process. As a Member of Parliament he represented Northwich, Cheshire, in 1885–1886 and then from 1887–1910. He was a paternalistic employer and as a politician supported Irish Home Rule, trade unions, free trade, welfare reforms and, leading up to the First World War, a more sympathetic stance towards Germany. Brunner was a prominent Freemason, and a generous benefactor to the towns in his constituency and to the University of Liverpool. He is the great grandfather of HRH The Duchess of Kent
Feb 18 Charles Emory Smith an American journalist and political leader. He was born in Mansfield, Connecticut
Feb 23 Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann a German philosopher.
Feb 24 Arrigo Boito an Italian poet, journalist, novelist, librettist and composer, best known today for his libretti, especially those for Giuseppe Verdi's operas Otello and Falstaff, and his own opera Mefistofele. Along with Emilio Praga, he is regarded as one of the prominent representatives of the Scapigliatura artistic movement
Feb 25 Karl May a popular German writer, noted mainly for adventure novels set in the American Old West and similar books set in the Orient and Middle East. In addition, he wrote stories set in his native Germany, in China and in South America. May also wrote poetry, a play, and composed music; he was a proficient player of several musical instruments. Many of his works were filmed, adapted for the stage, turned into audio dramas or into comics. A highly imaginative and fanciful writer, May never visited the exotic places featured in his stories until late in life, at which point the clash between his fiction and reality led to a complete change in his work
Feb 26 Camille Flammarion a French astronomer and author. He was a prolific author of more than fifty titles, including popular science works about astronomy, several notable early science fiction novels, and works on psychical research and related topics. He also published the magazine L'Astronomie, starting in 1882. He maintained a private observatory at Juvisy-sur-Orge, France
Feb 27 Emil Selenka a German zoologist. He is known for his research on invertebrates and apes and the scientific expeditions he organized to Southeast Asia and South America
Mar 1 Wilhelm Jordan (geodesist) a German geodesist who did surveys in Germany and Africa and founded the German geodesy journal.
Mar 1 Nikolaos Gyzis considered one of Greece's most important 19th-century painters. He was most famous for his work Eros and the Painter, his first genre painting. It was auctioned in May 2006 at Bonhams in London, being last exhibited in Greece in 1928. He was the major representative of the so-called "Munich School", the major 19th-century Greek art movement
Mar 2 Carl Jacobsen a Danish brewer, art collector and philanthropist, the son of C. Jacobsen, who founded the brewery Carlsberg and named it after him. His wife Ottilia Marie Jacobsen, née Stegmann , whom he met during a business trip to Edinburgh in Scotland later marrying in Copenhagen on 24 September 1874, was almost as famous as himself within the contemporary arts community in Denmark. She was the daughter of the Danish grain merchant Conrad Stegmann and wife Louise Marie, née Brummer
Mar 3 James Sully an English psychologist.
Mar 3 Alexander Mantashev a prominent Armenian oil magnate, industrialist, financier, and a philanthropist. By the end of his life he had become one of the world's wealthiest individuals
Mar 7 Georg Friedrich Knapp a German economist who in 1905 published The State Theory of Money, which founded the chartalist school of monetary theory, which takes the statist stance that money must have no intrinsic value and strictly be used as governmentally-issued token, i.e., fiat money.
Mar 11 Nicolaus Kleinenberg a Baltic German zoologist and evolutionary morphologist.
Mar 13 Joseph Valentin Boussinesq a French mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to the theory of hydrodynamics, vibration, light, and heat.
Mar 18 Stéphane Mallarmé Étienne Mallarmé, was a French poet and critic. He was a major French symbolist poet, and his work anticipated and inspired several revolutionary artistic schools of the early 20th century, such as Cubism, Futurism, Dadaism, and Surrealism
Mar 20 Francis Buchanan White a Scottish entomologist and botanist.
Mar 22 Mykola Lysenko a Ukrainian composer, pianist, conductor and ethnomusicologist.
Mar 23 Friedrich Amelung a Baltic German cultural historian, businessman and chess endgame composer.
Mar 25 Antonio Fogazzaro an Italian novelist.