Born in 1844

Jan 4 Julius Zupitza a German philologist and one of the founders of English Studies.
Jan 7 Bernadette Soubirous venerated as a Christian mystic and Saint in the Catholic Church.
Jan 13 Catherine Breshkovsky a Russian socialist, better known as Babushka the Grandmother of the Russian Revolution.
Jan 14 William Forsell Kirby an English entomologist and folklorist.
Jan 16 Paul Singer (politician) a leading Marxist in and representative of the Social Democratic Party of Germany in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Co-Chairmen of the SPD along with fellow Marxist August Bebel from 1890 until his death in 1911
Jan 16 Ismail Qemali a distinguished leader of the Albanian national movement, and founder of the Independent Albania. He was its head of state and president of its provisional government until January 1914 when he was forced to step aside by the International Commission of Control established by the six Great Powers
Jan 19 Gustav von Bunge a German physiologist known for work in the field of nutrition physiology. He was the son of botanist Alexander Bunge
Jan 23 Duke Elimar of Oldenburg a duke of Oldenburg.
Jan 23 Paul Brousse a French socialist, leader of the possibilistes group. He was active in the Jura Federation, a section of the International Working Men's Association , from the northwestern part of Switzerland and the Alsace. He helped edit the Bulletin de la Fédération Jurassienne, along with anarchist Peter Kropotkin. He was in contact with Gustave Brocher between 1877 and 1880, who became anarchist under Brousse's influence. Paul Brousse edited two newspapers, one in French and another in German. He helped James Guillaume publish its bulletin
Jan 27 Numa Droz a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council.
Jan 29 Heinrich Ritter von Wittek an Austrian politician and statesman. For a short time, he served as 17th Minister-President of Cisleithania in 1899/1900
Feb 1 G. Stanley Hall a pioneering American psychologist and educator. His interests focused on childhood development and evolutionary theory. Hall was the first president of the American Psychological Association and the first president of Clark University
Feb 1 Eduard Strasburger a Polish-German professor who was one of the most famous botanists of the 19th century.
Feb 2 José Gerson da Cunha a Goan physician who achieved international renown as an orientalist, historian, linguist and numismatist.
Feb 5 Lothar Kempter a German-Swiss composer and conductor.
Feb 5 Agustín Ross a Chilean politician, diplomat, and banker. He was son of David Ross and Carmen Edwards Ossandon; both were of British ancestry. He was married to Susana Ferari
Feb 7 Alexei Fedchenko a Russian naturalist and explorer well known for his travels in central Asia. Alternative transliterations of his name, used in languages such as German, include "Aleksei Pavlovich Fedtschenko" and "Alexei Pawlowitsch Fedtschenko"
Feb 7 Nikolai Danielson a Russian economist and sociologist.
Feb 10 William F. Barrett an English physicist and parapsychologist.
Feb 17 Aaron Montgomery Ward an American entrepreneur based in Chicago notable for his use of mail order for retail sales to rural customers.
Feb 18 Saitō Hajime a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period, who most famously served as the captain of the third unit of the Shinsengumi. He was one of the few core members who survived the numerous wars of the Bakumatsu period
Feb 18 Victorine Meurent a French painter and a famous model for painters. Although she is best-known nowadays as the favourite model of Édouard Manet, she was also an artist in her own right who regularly exhibited at the prestigious Paris Salon. In 1876 her paintings were selected for inclusion at the Salon's juried exhibition, when Manet's work was not
Feb 18 Willem Maris a Dutch landscape painter of the Hague School.
Feb 20 Joshua Slocum the first man to sail single-handedly around the world. He was a Nova Scotian born, naturalised American seaman and adventurer, and a noted writer. In 1900 he wrote a book about his journey Sailing Alone Around the World, which became an international best-seller. He disappeared in November 1909 while aboard his boat, the Spray
Feb 20 Mihály Munkácsy a Hungarian painter, who lived in Paris and earned international reputation with his genre pictures and large scale biblical paintings.
Feb 20 Ludwig Boltzmann an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms determine the physical properties of matter.
Feb 21 Charles-Marie Widor a French organist, composer and teacher.
Feb 25 Leó Frankel a Communist revolutionary of Hungarian and Jewish origin.
Feb 25 Horace Mann Jr. an American botanist, son of the man considered "father of American Public Education". His mother was one of the famous Peabody Sisters Mary Tyler Peabody Mann. Mentored in botany by Henry David Thoreau, whom he accompanied on an expedition to Minnesota, Mann took classes in zoology with Louis Agassiz and assisted William Tufts Brigham botanize the Hawaiian Islands. Mann was to have headed the botanical garden at Harvard, but died of tuberculosis at age twenty-four. His own herbarium was purchased by Cornell University and became the basis of that university's collection. He is credited with the discovery of more than 100 species
Feb 25 Mario Rapisardi an Italian poet, supporter of Risorgimento and member of the Scapigliatura.
Mar 3 Hugo Heermann a German violinist. He studied the violin with Lambert Joseph Meerts at the Koninklijk Conservatorium in Brussels, and later with Joseph Joachim. From 1864 he lived in Frankfurt am Main where he taught violin from 1878 to 1904 at the Hoch Conservatory. He played 1st violin with Hugo Becker, Fritz Bassermann and Adolf Rebner in the "Museums-Quartett". Between 1906 and 1909 he taught at the Chicago Musical College, in 1911 at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin and 1912 at the Conservatoire de musique in Geneva. He served as concertmaster of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra for a period beginning in 1909; he was succeeded in that post by his son Emil. He has the distinction of having been the first to have played Brahms' Violin Concerto in Paris, New York and Australia. After his retirement in 1922 he lived mostly in Meran, Italy
Mar 3 Aoki Shūzō a diplomat and Foreign Minister in Meiji period Japan.
Mar 7 Gabriel Monod a French historian, the nephew of Adolphe Monod.
Mar 10 Marie Spartali Stillman a British Pre-Raphaelite painter of Greek descent, arguably the greatest female artist of that movement. During a sixty-year career she produced over one hundred works, contributing regularly to exhibitions in Great Britain and the United States
Mar 10 Pablo de Sarasate a Spanish violinist and composer of the Romantic period.
Mar 14 Arthur O'Shaughnessy a British poet and herpetologist of Irish descent, born in London. He is most remembered for his ode beginning with the words "We are the music makers, /And we are the dreamers of dreams" which has been set to music several times
Mar 14 Umberto I of Italy the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his death.
Mar 16 Aleksei Birilev an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy, a member of the State Council and Minister of the Navy in the Imperial Government.
Mar 18 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five. He was a master of orchestration. His best-known orchestral compositions—Capriccio Espagnol, the Russian Easter Festival Overture, and the symphonic suite Scheherazade—are staples of the classical music repertoire, along with suites and excerpts from some of his 15 operas. Scheherazade is an example of his frequent use of fairy tale and folk subjects
Mar 18 Mikelis Avlichos a Greek poet and scholar.
Mar 19 Minna Canth a Finnish writer and social activist. Canth began to write while managing her family draper's shop and living as a widow raising seven children. Her work addresses issues of women's rights, particularly in the context of a prevailing culture she considered antithetical to permitting expression and realization of women's aspirations. Her play The Pastor's Family is her best known. In her time, she became a controversial figure, due to the asynchrony between her ideas and those of her time, and in part due to her strong advocacy for her point of view
Mar 21 George Leslie Mackay the first Presbyterian missionary to northern Formosa. He served with the Canadian Presbyterian Mission. Mackay is among the best known Westerners to have lived in Taiwan
Mar 23 Eugène Gigout a French organist and a composer, mostly of music for his own instrument.
Mar 23 Samuel Allen (bishop) an English prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the Bishop of Shrewsbury from 1897 to 1908
Mar 24 Camille Lemonnier a Belgian writer, poet and journalist. He was a member of the Symbolist La Jeune Belgique group, but his best known works are realist. His first work was Salon de Bruxelles , a collection of art criticism. His best known novel is Un Mâle
Mar 25 Adolf Engler a German botanist. He is notable for his work on plant taxonomy and phytogeography, such as Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien , edited with Karl E. von Prantl
Mar 25 Ferdinand Cohen-Blind a German student who attempted to assassinate Otto von Bismarck, then the Minister President of Prussia. He committed suicide shortly after his arrest
Mar 27 Adolphus Greely an American Polar explorer, a United States Army officer and a recipient of the Medal of Honor.
Mar 28 Prince Philipp of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha the second prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and lord of Csábrág and Szitnya, both in modern-day Slovakia.
Mar 30 Paul Verlaine a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the fin de siècle in international and French poetry