Born in 1845

Jan 1 Rodolfo Lanciani an Italian archaeologist, a pioneering student of ancient Roman topography, and among his many excavations was that of the House of the Vestals in the Roman Forum.
Jan 4 Vasily Nemirovich-Danchenko a Russian writer, essayist, journalist, memoirist, and the brother of famous theater director Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. Vasily Nemirovich-Danchenko, the most prolific Russian Empire writer of the late 19th-early 20th century, published more than 250 books; he was widely popular among the general reading public, but had little success with mainstream critics
Jan 6 Vladimir Lamsdorf a Russian statesman of Baltic German descent who served as Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire from 1900 – 1906, a crucial period which included the Russo-Japanese War and the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Jan 7 Paul Deussen a German Orientalist and Sanskrit scholar. Strongly influenced by Arthur Schopenhauer, Deussen was a friend of Friedrich Nietzsche and Swami Vivekananda. In 1911, he founded the Schopenhauer Society. Professor Deussen was the first editor, in 1912, of the scholarly journal Schopenhauer Yearbook
Jan 7 Ludwig III of Bavaria the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918.
Jan 10 William Hechler a Restorationist Anglican clergyman, eschatological writer, crusader against anti-Semitism, promoter of Zionism, aide, counselor, friend and legitimizer of Theodor Herzl the founder of the modern Zionism.
Jan 11 Albert Victor Bäcklund a Swedish mathematician and physicist. He was a professor at Lund University and its rector from 1907 to 1909
Jan 13 German Lopatin a Russian revolutionary, journalist and writer.
Jan 13 Félix Tisserand a French astronomer.
Jan 14 Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice 5th Marquess of Lansdowne a British politician and Irish peer who served successively as the fifth Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. He has the distinction of having held senior positions in both Liberal Party and Conservative Party governments
Jan 17 Erika Nissen a Norwegian pianist.
Jan 19 Richard Buchta an Austrian explorer, born in Radlow, Galicia. In 1877 he visited Khartum, where Chinese Gordon, then Governor-General, facilitated his journey to Emin Pasha at Ladó, on the Upper Nile. In 1885 he made another tour through Egypt and through the desert to Fayum. He was a collaborator on the first volume of Wilhelm Junker's work on Africa and published the following works: Die obern Nilländer, etc., with 160 photographic views ; Der Sudan und der Mahdi, Das Land, die Bewohner und der Aufstand ; and Der Sudan unter ägyptischer Herrschaft
Jan 21 Harriet Backer a Norwegian painter who achieved recognition in her own time and was a pioneer among female artists both in the Nordic countries and in Europe generally. She is best known for her detailed interior scenes, communicated with rich colors and moody lighting
Jan 22 Paul Vidal de la Blache a French geographer. He is considered to be the founder of modern French geography and also the founder of the French School of Geopolitics. He conceived the idea of genre de vie, which is the belief that the lifestyle of a particular region reflects the economic, social, ideological and psychological identities imprinted on the landscape
Jan 29 Abraham Ulrikab an Inuk from Hebron, Labrador, in the present day province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, who – along with his family and four other Inuit – agreed to become the latest attraction in the ethnographical shows organized by Carl Hagenbeck, owner of the Tierpark Hagenbeck, a zoo in Hamburg, Germany.
Jan 29 Alfred Nehring a German zoologist and paleontologist.
Jan 29 Petr Bezobrazov an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy.
Feb 2 William Henry White a prolific British warship designer and Chief Constructor at the Admiralty.
Feb 2 Ivan Pulyui a Ukrainian-born physicist, inventor and patriot who has been championed as an early developer of the use of X-rays for medical imaging. His contributions were largely neglected until the end of the 20th century
Feb 3 Frederick Niecks a German musical scholar and author, who was resident in Scotland for the bulk of his life. He is best remembered now for his biographies of Frédéric Chopin and Robert Schumann
Feb 3 Ernst von Wildenbruch a German poet and dramatist.
Feb 6 Isidor Straus a German-born American businessman and co-owner of Macy's department store with his brother Nathan. He also served briefly as a member of the United States House of Representatives. He died with his wife, Ida, in the sinking of the passenger ship RMS Titanic
Feb 7 Louis Alexander Fagan an Anglo-Italian writer. He worked in the Department of Prints and Drawings for the British Museum from 1869 to 1894
Feb 8 Francis Ysidro Edgeworth an Anglo-Irish philosopher and political economist who made significant contributions to the methods of statistics during the 1880s. From 1891 onward he was appointed the founding editor of The Economic Journal
Feb 8 Emil Sax an Austrian economist from Javorník, Austrian Silesia.
Feb 9 Ludwig Forrer a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council.
Feb 11 Ahmet Tevfik Pasha the last Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
Feb 12 Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher a German classical scholar. He specialized in studies of Greek and Roman mythology
Feb 14 Hinrich Nitsche a German zoologist. He was a son-in-law to geographer Oscar Peschel
Feb 14 Zygmunt Gorgolewski a Polish architect, renowned for his construction of the Grand Theatre in Lwów.
Feb 15 Elihu Root an American lawyer and statesman who served as the Secretary of War under two presidents, including President Theodore Roosevelt. He was the prototype of the 20th century revolving door, shuttled between high-level appointed government positions in Washington, D.C. and private-sector legal practice in New York City. He was elected by the state legislature as a US Senator from New York and served one term, 1909–1915. Root was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912
Feb 15 Émile Cartailhac a French prehistorian, one of the founding fathers of the studies of the cave art. He is perhaps best remembered because of his involvement with the Altamira paintings
Feb 16 George Kennan (explorer) an American explorer noted for his travels in the Kamchatka and Caucasus regions of the Russian Empire. He was a cousin twice removed of diplomat and historian George Kennan, with whom he shared his birthday
Feb 16 François-Virgile Dubillard a cardinal of the Catholic Church, and Archbishop of Chambéry 1907–1914.
Feb 22 Matthew II Izmirlian the Catholicos of All Armenians of the Armenian Apostolic Church at the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin from 1908–1910. He succeeded Mkrtich I Khrimian , who reigned as Catholicos from 1892 to 1907
Feb 23 Afonso Prince Imperial of Brazil the Prince Imperial and heir apparent to the throne of the Empire of Brazil. Born in Rio de Janeiro, he was the eldest child of Emperor Dom Pedro II and Dona Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies, and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. With the birth of his child, the insecure and shy 19-year-old Emperor Pedro II became more mature and outgoing. Afonso's arrival also fostered a closer and happier relationship between his parents, who had not married for love
Feb 25 Eugène Goossens père a Belgian conductor.
Feb 25 George Reid (Australian politician) an Australian politician, Premier of New South Wales and the fourth Prime Minister of Australia.
Feb 27 Grigor Artsruni an Armenian journalist, critic, writer and public activist, Doctor of Political Economy and Philosophy. Since 1872 he had been publishing the Mshak magazine being its editor and manager until his death
Mar 3 Georg Cantor a German mathematician, best known as the inventor of set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of one-to-one correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and well-ordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are "more numerous" than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor's method of proof of this theorem implies the existence of an "infinity of infinities". He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest, a fact of which he was well aware
Mar 5 Alphonse Hasselmans a Belgian-born French harpist, composer, and pedagogue.
Mar 7 Daniel David Palmer or D.D. Palmer was the founder of chiropractic. Palmer was born in Pickering, Canada West and raised in the southern Ontario area, where he received his education
Mar 9 Wilhelm Pfeffer a German botanist and plant physiologist born in Grebenstein.
Mar 10 Alexander III of Russia Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Prince of Finland from 13 March 1881 until his death on 1 November 1894. He was highly conservative and reversed some of the liberal measures of his father, Alexander During Alexander's reign Russia fought no major wars, for which he was styled "The Peacemaker"
Mar 12 William Douglas-Hamilton 12th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish nobleman.
Mar 13 Jan Baudouin de Courtenay a Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations.
Mar 13 Nikolai Belelyubsky a leading bridge designer and scientist of Imperial Russia.
Mar 15 Thomas Custer a United States Army officer and two-time recipient of the Medal of Honor for bravery during the American Civil War. He was a younger brother of George Armstrong Custer, perishing with him at Little Bighorn in the Montana Territory
Mar 15 Princess Sophie of Saxony the eighth and youngest child of John of Saxony and his wife Amalie Auguste of Bavaria and a younger sister of Albert of Saxony and George of Saxony. Through her marriage to Duke Karl-Theodor in Bavaria, Sophie was a member of the House of Wittelsbach and a Duchess in Bavaria
Mar 16 Umegatani Tōtarō I a sumo wrestler from Asakura, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. He was the sport's 15th yokozuna. He was generally regarded as the strongest wrestler to emerge since the era of Tanikaze and Raiden