1848 events in history

Jan 3 Joseph Jenkins Roberts is sworn in as the first president of the independent African Liberia
Jan 12 The Palermo rising takes place in Sicily against the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Jan 24 California Gold Rush: James W. Marshall finds gold at Sutter's Mill near Sacramento
Jan 31 John C. Frémont is Court-martialed for mutiny and disobeying orders
Feb 2 California Gold Rush: The first ship with Chinese immigrants arrives in San Francisco
Feb 2 Mexican–American War: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed
Feb 21 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto
Feb 22 The French Revolution of 1848, which would lead to the establishment of the French Second Republic, begins
Feb 24 King Louis-Philippe of France abdicates the throne
Feb 25 Provisional government in revolutionary France, by Louis Blanc's motion, guarantees workers' rights
Mar 4 Carlo Alberto di Savoia signs the Statuto Albertino that will later represent the first constitution of the Regno d'Italia
Mar 10 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is ratified by the United States Senate, ending the Mexican–American War
Mar 11 Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin become the first Prime Ministers of the Province of Canada to be democratically elected under a system of responsible government
Mar 15 A revolution breaks out in Hungary. The Habsburg rulers are compelled to meet the demands of the Reform party
Mar 18 March Revolution: in Berlin there is a struggle between citizens and military, costing about 300 lives
Mar 20 Revolutions of 1848 in the German states: King Ludwig I of Bavaria abdicates
Mar 23 The ship John Wickliffe arrives at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded
Apr 18 American victory at the battle of Cerro Gordo opens the way for invasion of Mexico
May 13 First performance of Finland's national anthem
May 18 Opening of the first German National Assembly (Nationalversammlung) in Frankfurt, Germany
May 19 Mexican–American War: Mexico ratifies the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo thus ending the war and ceding California, Nevada, Utah and parts of four other modern-day U.S. states to the United States for US$15 million
May 22 Slavery is abolished in Martinique
May 29 Wisconsin is admitted as the 30th U.S. state
Jun 2 The Slavic congress in Prague begins
Jun 21 In the Wallachian Revolution, Ion Heliade Rădulescu and Christian Tell issue the Proclamation of Islaz and create a new republican government
Jun 23 Beginning of the June Days Uprising in Paris, France
Jun 26 End of the June Days Uprising in Paris
Jul 3 Slaves are freed in the Danish West Indies (now U.S. Virgin Islands) by Peter von Scholten in the culmination of a year-long plot by enslaved Africans
Jul 11 Waterloo railway station in London opens
Jul 19 Women's rights: a two-day Women's Rights Convention opens in Seneca Falls, New York
Jul 29 Irish Potato Famine: Tipperary Revolt – In Tipperary, Ireland, then in the United Kingdom, an unsuccessful nationalist revolt against British rule is put down by police
Aug 14 Oregon Territory is organized by act of Congress
Aug 18 Camila O'Gorman and Ladislao Gutierrez are executed on the orders of Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas
Aug 19 California Gold Rush: The New York Herald breaks the news to the East Coast of the United States of the gold rush in California (although the rush started in January)
Aug 22 The United States annexes New Mexico
Sep 12 Switzerland becomes a Federal state
Sep 13 Vermont railroad worker Phineas Gage survives a 3-foot (0.91 m)-plus iron rod being driven through his head; the reported effects on his behavior and personality stimulate thinking about the nature of the brain and its functions
Sep 20 The American Association for the Advancement of Science is created
Sep 29 Battle of Pákozd: Stalemate between Hungarian and Croatian forces at Pákozd; the first battle of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Oct 28 The first railroad in Spain between Barcelona and Mataró is opened
Nov 1 In Boston, Massachusetts, the first medical school for women, The Boston Female Medical School (which later merged with the Boston University School of Medicine), opens
Nov 3 A greatly revised Dutch constitution, drafted by Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, severely limiting the powers of the Dutch monarchy, and strengthening the powers of parliament and ministers, is proclaimed
Nov 9 Robert Blum, a German revolutionary, is executed in Vienna
Dec 2 Franz Josef I becomes Emperor of Austria
Dec 5 California Gold Rush: In a message to the U.S. Congress, U.S. President James K. Polk confirms that large amounts of gold had been discovered in California