1850 in history

1850 events chronologically

Jan 29 Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress
Mar 5 The Britannia Bridge across the Menai Strait between the Isle of Anglesey and the mainland of Wales is opened
Mar 7 Senator Daniel Webster gives his "Seventh of March" speech endorsing the Compromise of 1850 in order to prevent a possible civil war
Mar 18 American Express is founded by Henry Wells and William Fargo
Apr 4 Los Angeles, California, is incorporated as a city
Apr 4 The Great Fire of Cottenham: a large part of the Cambridgeshire village (England) is burnt to the ground in suspicious circumstances
May 15 The Bloody Island Massacre takes place in Lake County, California, in which a large number of Pomo Indians in Lake County are slaughtered by a regiment of the United States Cavalry, led by Nathaniel Lyon

Top 7 most famous people born in 1850

Jan 15 Sofia Kovalevskaya the first major Russian female mathematician, responsible for important original contributions to analysis, differential equations and mechanics, and the first woman appointed to a full professorship in Northern Europe. She was also one of the first women to work for a scientific journal as an editor
Mar 7 Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk a Czechoslovak politician, sociologist and philosopher, who as an eager advocate of Czechoslovak independence during World War I became the founder and first President of Czechoslovakia. He originally wished to reform the Austro-Hungarian monarchy into a democratic federal state, but during the First World War he began to favour the abolition of the monarchy and, with the help of the Allied Powers, eventually succeeded
May 18 Oliver Heaviside a self-taught English electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations , reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis. Although at odds with the scientific establishment for most of his life, Heaviside changed the face of mathematics and science for years to come
Jun 6 Karl Ferdinand Braun a German inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics. Braun contributed significantly to the development of the radio and television technology : he shared with Guglielmo Marconi the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics
Jun 24 Herbert Kitchener 1st Earl Kitchener a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won fame for his imperial campaigns and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War, although he died halfway through it.
Aug 5 Guy de Maupassant a popular French writer, considered one of the fathers of the modern short story and one of the form's finest exponents.
Nov 13 Robert Louis Stevenson a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, and travel writer. His most famous works are Treasure Island, Kidnapped, and Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde

Top 7 most famous people died in 1850

Mar 31 John C. Calhoun a leading American politician and political theorist during the first half of the 19th century. Hailing from South Carolina, Calhoun began his political career as a nationalist, modernizer, and proponent of a strong national government and protective tariffs. After 1830, his views evolved and he became a greater proponent of states' rights, limited government, nullification and free trade; as he saw these means as the only way to preserve the Union. He is best known for his intense and original defense of slavery as something positive, his distrust of majoritarianism, and for pointing the South toward secession from the Union
Apr 23 William Wordsworth a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads.
Jul 2 Robert Peel a British Conservative statesman, who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April 1835, and again from 30 August 1841 to 29 June 1846. The son of a wealthy textile manufacturer, he served in many top offices over four decades. While serving as Home Secretary, Peel reformed and liberalised the criminal law, and created the modern police force, leading to a new type of officer known in tribute to him as "bobbies" and "peelers". He cut tariffs to stimulate business; to replace the lost revenue he pushed through a 3% income tax. He played a central role in making Free Trade a reality and set up a modern banking system. Initially a supporter of legal discrimination against Catholics, Peel eventually supported the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, claiming "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger". Peel has been criticised for his handling of the Irish famine. In 1834, Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto, laying down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based. Peel often started from a traditional Tory position in opposition to a measure, then reversed himself and became the leader in supporting liberal legislation. This happened with the Test Act , Catholic Emancipation , the Reform Act of 1832, the income tax and most notably the repeal of the Corn Laws. Therefore many critics said he was a traitor to the Tory cause, or "a Liberal wolf in sheep's clothing" because his final position reflected liberal ideas. Historian A.J.P. Taylor says:
Jul 9 Zachary Taylor the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850. Before his presidency, Taylor was a career officer in the United States Army, rising to the rank of major general. His status as a national hero as a result of his victories in the Mexican-American War won him election to the White House despite his vague political beliefs. His top priority as president was preserving the Union, but he died sixteen months into his term, before making any progress on the status of slavery, which had been inflaming tensions in Congress. Taylor was born to a prominent family of planters who migrated westward from Virginia to Kentucky in his youth. He was commissioned as an officer in the U.S. Army in 1808 and made a name for himself as a captain in the War of 1812. He climbed the ranks establishing military forts along the Mississippi River and entered the Black Hawk War as a colonel in 1832. His success in the Second Seminole War attracted national attention and earned him the nickname "Old Rough and Ready"
Jul 9 Báb the founder of Bábism, and one of three central figures of the Bahá'í Faith. He was a merchant from Shiraz, Persia who, at the age of twenty-four , claimed to be an inspired interpreter of the Qur'an within the Shaykhi school of Twelver Shi'ism. He made bolder claims as time passed, and in 1847, during a trial in Tabriz, asserted a claim to be the Shi'i 'promised one' or Qá'im. After his declaration he took the title of Báb meaning "Gate" or "Door". He composed numerous letters and books in which he stated his messianic claims and defined his teachings, which constituted a new sharí'ah or religious law. His movement eventually acquired thousands of supporters, was opposed by Iran's Shi'i clergy, and was suppressed by the Iranian government, leading to the persecution and killing of between two and three thousand of his followers, called Bábís. In 1850, at the age of thirty, the Báb was shot by a firing squad in Tabriz
Aug 17 José de San Martín an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire. Born in Yapeyú, Corrientes, in modern Argentina, he left his mother country at the early age of seven to study in Málaga, Spain
Aug 18 Honoré de Balzac a French novelist and playwright. His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the 1815 fall of Napoleon Bonaparte