Born in 1850

Jan 1 John Barclay Armstrong a Texas Ranger lieutenant and a United States Marshal, usually remembered for his role in the pursuit and capture of the famous gunfighter John Wesley Hardin.
Jan 1 Cornelius Gurlitt (art historian) a German architect and art historian.
Jan 4 Max Kalbeck a German writer, critic and translator. He became one of the most influential critics in Austria and was bitterly opposed to the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Hugo Wolf
Jan 5 Gottlob Krause a German Africanist and linguist.
Jan 6 Witold Zglenicki rus. Витольд Згленицкий was a Polish geologist and philanthropist
Jan 6 Eduard Bernstein a German social democratic political theorist and politician, a member of the Social Democratic Party , and the founder of evolutionary socialism, social democracy and revisionism. Bernstein had held close association to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, but he saw flaws in Marxist thinking and began to criticize views held by Marxism when he investigated and challenged the Marxist materialist theory of history. He rejected significant parts of Marxist theory that were based upon Hegelian metaphysics; he rejected the Hegelian dialectical perspective
Jan 6 Ladislav Stroupežnický a renowned Czech author, playwright, and dramatist, best known for the frequently staged play Naši furianti.
Jan 6 Xaver Scharwenka a - Polish] pianist, composer and teacher. He was the brother of Philipp Scharwenka , who was also a composer and teacher of music
Jan 8 Aleksandr Verzhbilovich a Russian classical cellist of Polish descent.
Jan 10 John Wellborn Root an American architect who was based in Chicago with Daniel Burnham. He was one of the founders of the Chicago School style. One of his buildings was designated a National Historic Landmark; others have been designated Chicago landmarks and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1958 he received the AIA Gold Medal
Jan 11 Eugen Kumičić a prominent Croatian writer and politician.
Jan 11 Joseph Charles Arthur a pioneer American plant pathologist and mycologist best known for his work with the parasitic rust fungi.:4 He was a charter member of the Botanical Society of America, the Mycological Society of America, and the American Phytopathological Society. He was a recipient of the first Doctorate in Sciences awarded by Cornell University
Jan 11 Philipp von Ferrary likely to exist. Amongst his extremely rare stamps were the unique Treskilling Yellow of Sweden and the 1856 one-cent "Black on Magenta" of British Guiana
Jan 14 Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia the fifth child and the fourth son of Alexander II of Russia and his first wife Maria Alexandrovna. Destined to a naval career, Alexei Alexandrovich started his military training at the age of 7. By the age of 20 he had been appointed lieutenant of the Russian Imperial Navy and had visited all European military ports of Russia. In 1871 he was sent as a goodwill ambassador to the United States and Japan
Jan 14 Jean de Reszke a Polish tenor. Renowned internationally for the high quality of his singing and the elegance of his bearing, he became the biggest male opera star of the late 19th century
Jan 14 Pierre Loti a French novelist and naval officer.
Jan 15 Mihai Eminescu a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, often regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet. Eminescu was an active member of the Junimea literary society and he worked as an editor for the newspaper Timpul , the official newspaper of the Conservative Party. His poetry was first published when he was 16 and he went to Vienna to study when he was 19. The poet's Manuscripts, containing 46 volumes and approximately 14,000 pages, were offered by Titu Maiorescu as a gift to the Romanian Academy during the meeting that was held on 25 January 1902. Notable works include Luceafărul , Odă în metru antic , and the five Letters. In his poems he frequently used metaphysical, mythological and historical subjects
Jan 15 Sofia Kovalevskaya the first major Russian female mathematician, responsible for important original contributions to analysis, differential equations and mechanics, and the first woman appointed to a full professorship in Northern Europe. She was also one of the first women to work for a scientific journal as an editor
Jan 15 Leonard Darwin variously a soldier, politician, economist, eugenicist and mentor of the statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher.
Jan 15 Paul Guiraud a French historian born in Cenne-Monestiés, a commune located in the department of Aude.
Jan 17 Alexander Taneyev a Russian state official and composer of the late Romantic era, specifically of the nationalist school. Among his better-known works were three string quartets, believed to have been composed between 1898–1900
Jan 18 Seth Low an American educator and political figure who served as mayor of Brooklyn, as President of Columbia University, as diplomatic representative of the United States, and as 92nd Mayor of New York City. He was a leading municipal reformer fighting for efficiency during the Progressive Era
Jan 18 Ernests Vīgners a Latvian composer and conductor.
Jan 19 Nikolay Khomyakov a Russian politician.
Jan 20 Emilio Sala (painter) a Spanish painter.
Jan 22 Karl Litzmann a German World War I general and later Nazi Party member and state politician.
Jan 24 Hermann Ebbinghaus known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve. He was the father of the eminent neo-Kantian philosopher Julius Ebbinghaus
Jan 24 Eugen Wolf a German journanist and traveller.
Jan 27 Samuel Gompers an English-born American cigar maker who became a Georgist labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor , and served as the organization's president from 1886 to 1894 and from 1895 until his death in 1924. He promoted harmony among the different craft unions that comprised the AFL, trying to minimize jurisdictional battles. He promoted "thorough" organization and collective bargaining to secure shorter hours and higher wages, the first essential steps, he believed, to emancipating labor. He also encouraged the AFL to take political action to "elect their friends" and "defeat their enemies". During World War I, Gompers and the AFL openly supported the war effort, attempting to avoid strikes and boost morale while raising wage rates and expanding membership
Jan 27 John Collier (artist) a leading English artist, and an author. He painted in the Pre-Raphaelite style, and was one of the most prominent portrait painters of his generation. Both his marriages were to daughters of Thomas Henry Huxley. He studied painting at the Munich Academy where he enrolled on 14 April 1875 at the age of 25
Jan 27 Ivan Pohitonov a Ukrainian painter and Peredvizhnik.
Jan 27 Edward Smith (sea captain) an English naval reserve officer who served as commanding officer of numerous White Star Line vessels. He is best known as the captain of the maiden voyage of the RMS Titanic, which struck an iceberg and sank on 15 April 1912; Smith and over 1,500 others perished in the sinking. There is a statue of him in Beacon Park, Lichfield, England
Jan 29 Princess Marie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt the consort and third wife of Frederick Francis II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She was mother of Prince Hendrik, consort of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands and father of Queen Juliana
Jan 29 Ebenezer Howard known for his publication Garden Cities of To-morrow , the description of a utopian city in which people live harmoniously together with nature. The publication resulted in the founding of the garden city movement, that realised several Garden Cities in Great Britain at the beginning of the 20th century. This movement influenced the development of several model suburbs such as Forest Hills Gardens designed by L. Olmsted in 1909, Radburn NJ and the Suburban Resettlement Program towns of the 1930s. Howard aimed to reduce the alienation of humans and society from nature, and hence advocated garden cities and Georgism. Howard is believed by many to be one of the great guides to the town planning movement, with many of his garden city principles being used in modern town planning
Jan 29 Edmond Nocard a French veterinarian and microbiologist, born in Provins.
Jan 30 Aleksander Gierymski a Polish painter of the late 19th century. He was the younger brother of Maksymilian Gierymski
Jan 31 Julius von Klever a russian landscape painter of Baltic German descent.
Feb 2 Otto Seeck perhaps best known for his work on the decline of the ancient world. He was born in Riga
Feb 8 Kate Chopin an American author of short stories and novels. She is now considered by some to have been a forerunner of the feminist authors of the 20th century
Feb 10 Alexander von Linsingen a German general during World War I.
Feb 11 Hermann Jacobi an eminent German Indologist.
Feb 11 Louis Archinard a French Army general at the time of the Third Republic, who contributed to the colonial conquest of French West Africa. He was traditionally presented in French histories as the conqueror and "Pacifier" of French Soudan. Archinard's campaigns brought about the end of the Tukulor Empire. He also spent a large amount of energy fighting Samory Toure. In 1897 Archinard was reassigned to French Indochina
Feb 12 William Morris Davis an American geographer, geologist, geomorphologist, and meteorologist, often called the "father of American geography".
Feb 13 Michael Kelly (bishop) an Australian Roman Catholic clergyman, the fourth Archbishop of Sydney.
Feb 14 Grand Duke Nicholas Constantinovich of Russia the first-born son of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia and Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna of Russia and a grandson of Nicholas I of Russia.
Feb 15 Adolf Jarisch an Austrian dermatologist born in Vienna.
Feb 15 Ion Andreescu a Romanian painter of great renown.
Feb 18 George Henschel a German-born British baritone, pianist, conductor, and composer.
Feb 19 Ernst Bernheim a German historian, best known for an influential Lehrbuch der historischen Methode on historical method.
Feb 19 Richard M. Brewer an American cowboy and Lincoln County, New Mexico, lawman. He was the founding leader of the Regulators, a deputized posse who fought in the Lincoln County War