Born in 1853

Jan 1 Karl von Einem the commander of the German 3rd Army during the First World War and served as the Prussian Minister of War responsible for much of the German military buildup prior to the outbreak of the war.
Jan 1 Hans von Koessler a German composer, conductor and music teacher. In Hungary, where he worked for 26 years, he was known as János Koessler
Jan 3 Iwan Knorr a German composer and teacher of music. A native of Mewe, he attended the Leipzig Conservatory where he studied with Ignaz Moscheles, Ernst Friedrich Richter and Carl Reinecke. In 1874 he became a teacher and in 1878 director of music theory instruction at the Imperial Kharkiv Conservatory, in what is now Ukraine. In 1883 he settled in Frankfurt, where he joined the faculty of the Hoch Conservatory; in 1908 he became director of the school. As a teacher he exerted great influence; among his pupils were Bernhard Sekles, Ernest Bloch, Vladimir Sokalskyi, Ernst Toch, Roger Quilter, Hans Pfitzner, and Cyril Scott. Knorr died in Frankfurt
Jan 6 Eduard Schensnovich an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy.
Jan 7 Mykola Arkas a Ukrainian composer, writer, historian, and cultural activist. Arkas was the author of a popular book History of Ukraine
Jan 9 Henning von Holtzendorff a German admiral during World War I who became famous for his December 1916 memo to Kaiser Wilhelm II about unrestricted submarine warfare against the United Kingdom. He received the Pour le Mérite in 1917 and was made a Grand Admiral in 1918
Jan 10 Jessie Bond an English singer and actress best known for creating the mezzo-soprano soubrette roles in the Gilbert and Sullivan comic operas. She spent twenty years on the stage, the bulk of them with the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company
Jan 10 John Martin Schaeberle a German-American astronomer.
Jan 11 Gustav Falke a German writer.
Jan 11 Georgios Jakobides a painter and one of the main representatives of the Greek artistic movement of the Munich School. He founded and was the first curator of the National Gallery of Greece in Athens
Jan 12 Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro an Italian mathematician born in Lugo di Romagna. He is most famous as the inventor of tensor calculus, but also published important works in other fields
Jan 15 Albert McIntire an American Republican politician. He was the ninth Governor of Colorado from 1895 to 1897. In 1896 Governor McIntire sent the Colorado National Guard to Leadville due to violence at the Coronado Mine during a strike by the Western Federation of Miners
Jan 16 Johnston Forbes-Robertson an English actor and theatre manager. He was considered the finest Hamlet of the nineteenth century and one of the finest actors of his time, despite his dislike of the job and his lifelong belief that he was temperamentally unsuited to acting
Jan 16 Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton most notable for commanding the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force during the Gallipoli Campaign.
Jan 16 André Michelin a French industrialist who, with his brother Édouard , founded the Michelin Tyre Company in 1888 in the French city of Clermont-Ferrand.
Jan 17 Alva Belmont a prominent multi-millionaire American socialite and a major figure in the women's suffrage movement. Known for having an aristocratic manner that antagonized many people, she was also noted for her energy, intelligence, strong opinions, and willingness to challenge convention. She was married first to William Kissam Vanderbilt, with whom she had three children, and secondly to Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont
Jan 18 Kārlis Mīlenbahs the first native speaker of Latvian to devote his career to linguistics. Mīlenbahs studied classical philology at the University of Dorpat. He was the author of over a hundred scholarly articles on the language in Latvian, Russian, and German, but his main achievement was the Latvian-German dictionary that remains the most important lexicographical work on Latvian. His polemics with the poet Rainis led to an important essay on literary Latvian published in 1909, and he was also a translator of the The Odyssey
Jan 18 Marthinus Nikolaas Ras considered the father of South African Artillery.
Jan 20 Friedrich Siebenrock an Austrian herpetologist.
Jan 22 Pavel Mishchenko a career military officer and statesman in the Russian Empire.
Jan 22 Alexander Mann a Scottish landscape and genre painter. He was a member of New English Art Club and Royal Institute of Oil Painters
Jan 26 Ivan Grigorovich Konstantinovich Grigorovich served as Imperial Russia's last Naval Minister from 1911 until the onset of revolution in 1917.
Jan 26 Anto Gvozdenović a Montenegrin, Russian, and French general, a member of the Imperial Russian Privy Council, and a diplomat and statesman. He was the ambassador of Montenegro to the United States of America and was the President of the Government-in-exile of Montenegro for two terms and the Regent to King Michael I
Jan 28 José Martí a Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature. In his short life, he was a poet, an essayist, a journalist, a revolutionary philosopher, a translator, a professor, a publisher, and a political theorist. Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol for Cuba's bid for independence against Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence." He also wrote about the threat of Spanish and US expansionism into Cuba. From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba, and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans; his death was used as a cry for Cuban independence from Spain by both the Cuban revolutionaries and those Cubans previously reluctant to start a revolt
Jan 28 Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher) a Russian philosopher, theologian, poet, pamphleteer and literary critic, who played a significant role in the development of Russian philosophy and poetry at the end of the 19th century and in the spiritual renaissance of the early 20th century.
Jan 29 Kitasato Shibasaburō a Japanese physician and bacteriologist during the prewar period. He is remembered as the co-discoverer of the infectious agent of bubonic plague in Hong Kong in 1894, almost simultaneously with Alexandre Yersin
Jan 30 William Heerlein Lindley a British civil engineer.
Jan 30 Manuel Vitorino a Governor of Bahia and a Vice-President under Prudente de Morais.
Jan 31 Costantino Barbella an Italian sculptor, known as il Michetti della scultura.
Feb 6 Ignacij Klemenčič a Carniolan physicist of Slovene descent.
Feb 9 Paul Jamin a French painter of the Academic Classicism school.
Feb 10 Victor Mordechai Goldschmidt a German mineralogist, natural philosopher, and art collector.
Feb 13 Maximilian Pirner a Czech painter. A member of the Vienna Secession and associated with the Czech Secession art movements, Pirner's usual themes were classical mythology and the macabre. Pirner also completed a number of sketches of female figures, many of them nudes
Feb 15 Sir Frederick Treves 1st Baronet a prominent British surgeon of the Victorian and Edwardian eras, now known for his friendship with Joseph Merrick, "the Elephant Man".
Feb 15 Alfred Beit a British South African, gold and diamond magnate and a major donor and profiteer of infrastructure development in central and Southern Africa, and of university education and research in several countries, including being the "silent partner" who structured the capital flight from post-boer-war ZA to Rhodesia , and the Rhodes Scholarship.
Feb 17 Jaroslav Vrchlický one of the greatest Czech lyrical poets. He was born Emil Bohuslav Frída, Vrchlický being a pseudonym
Feb 18 Ernest Fenollosa an American art historian of Japanese art, professor of philosophy and political economy at Tokyo Imperial University. An important educator during the modernization of Japan during the Meiji Era, Fenollosa was an enthusiastic Orientalist who did much to preserve traditional Japanese art
Feb 18 Charles Rivett-Carnac (sailor) a British sailor who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics.
Mar 2 Ambrosius Hubrecht a Dutch zoölogist.
Mar 5 Howard Pyle an American illustrator and author, primarily of books for young people. A native of Wilmington, Delaware, he spent the last year of his life in Florence, Italy
Mar 10 Higaonna Kanryō a native of Nishi-shin-machi, Naha, Okinawa. He was born in Nishimura, Naha to a merchant family, whose business was selling goods to the north of Okinawa and shipping firewood back to Naha. Firewood was an expensive commodity in the Ryukyu Islands. His family belonged to the lower Shizoku class known as the Chikudun Peichin. He founded the fighting style later to be known as Gōjū ryū karate
Mar 14 Ferdinand Hodler one of the best-known Swiss painters of the nineteenth century. His early works were portraits, landscapes, and genre paintings in a realistic style. Later, he adopted a personal form of symbolism he called Parallelism
Mar 14 Max Saenger a German obstetrician and gynecologist who was a native of Bayreuth.
Mar 16 Heinrich Kayser a German physicist and spectroscopist.
Mar 18 Alexis Toth a Russian Orthodox church leader in the Midwestern United States who, having resigned his position as a Byzantine Catholic priest in the Ruthenian Catholic Church, became responsible for the conversions of approximately 20,000 Eastern Rite Catholics to the Russian Orthodox Church, which contributed to the growth of Eastern Orthodoxy in the United States and the eventual establishment of the Orthodox Church in America. He was canonized by the Orthodox Church in 1994
Mar 18 Emilie Kempin-Spyri the first woman in Switzerland to graduate with a law degree and to be accepted as an academic lecturer. However, as a woman she was not permitted to practice as an attorney; therefore she emigrated to New York, where she taught at a law school she established for women. Emilie Kempin-Spyri was the niece of the author Johanna Spyri
Mar 20 Dmitry Sipyagin Sergeyevich Sipyagin , a Russian statesman.
Mar 23 Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar the fifth Qajar king of Persia. He reigned between the years 1896 and 1907
Mar 27 Yakov Zhilinskiy Chief of Staff of the Imperial Russian Army in Manchuria during the Russo-Japanese War, Governor-General of Warsaw, and Chief of Staff of all Russian forces until 1914, and thereafter a field commander during the first year of World War I until he was relieved of command.
Mar 28 Rudolf Kittel a German Old Testament scholar. Kittel studied at Tübingen University. He became Professor of Old Testament at Breslau and Leipzig. He produced commentaries and histories of the Israelites and the Near East, but his most enduring work was his critical edition of the Hebrew scriptures, Biblia Hebraica, which has remained a standard text