1854 in history

1854 events chronologically

Jan 4 The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang
Feb 17 The United Kingdom recognizes the independence of the Orange Free State
Feb 23 The official independence of the Orange Free State is declared
Mar 1 German psychologist Friedrich Eduard Beneke disappears; two years later his remains are found in a canal near Charlottenburg
Mar 20 The Republican Party of the United States is organized in Ripon, Wisconsin
Mar 24 In Venezuela, slavery was abolished
Mar 28 Crimean War: France and Britain declare war on Russia

Top 7 most famous people born in 1854

Mar 14 Alexandru Macedonski a Wallachian-born Romanian poet, novelist, dramatist and literary critic, known especially for having promoted French Symbolism in his native country, and for leading the Romanian Symbolist movement during its early decades. A forerunner of local modernist literature, he is the first local author to have used free verse, and claimed by some to have been the first in modern European literature. Within the framework of Romanian literature, Macedonski is seen by critics as second only to national poet Mihai Eminescu; as leader of a cosmopolitan and aestheticist trend formed around his Literatorul journal, he was diametrically opposed to the inward-looking traditionalism of Eminescu and his school
Mar 14 Paul Ehrlich a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and chemotherapy. He invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria. The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different type of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases
Apr 29 Henri Poincaré a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and a philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as The Last Universalist by Eric Temple Bell, since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime
Jul 3 Leoš Janáček a Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher. He was inspired by Moravian and other Slavic folk music to create an original, modern musical style
Oct 16 Oscar Wilde an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. Today he is remembered for his epigrams, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, his plays, and the circumstances of his imprisonment and early death
Oct 20 Arthur Rimbaud a French poet born in Charleville, Ardennes. He influenced modern literature and arts, inspired various musicians, and prefigured surrealism. He started writing poems at a very young age, while still in primary school, and stopped completely before he turned 21. He was mostly creative in his teens. His "genius, its flowering, explosion and sudden extinction, still astonishes"
Nov 21 Pope Benedict XV Pope from 3 September 1914 to his death in 1922. His pontificate was largely overshadowed by World War I and its political, social and humanitarian consequences in Europe

Top 7 most famous people died in 1854

Feb 27 Hugues Felicité Robert de Lamennais a French Catholic priest, philosopher, and political theorist. His famous opinions on matters of religion and government changed dramatically over the course of his life
Apr 29 Henry Paget 1st Marquess of Anglesey a British Army officer and politician. After serving as a Member of Parliament for Carnarvon and then for Milborne Port, he took part in the Flanders Campaign and then commanded the cavalry for Sir John Moore's army in Spain during the Peninsular War; his cavalry showed distinct superiority over their French counterparts at the Battle of Sahagún, where his men captured two French lieutenant colonels and so mauled the French chasseurs that they ceased to exist as a viable regiment. He also commanded the cavalry at the Battle of Benavente, where he defeated the elite chasseurs of the French Imperial Guard
Jul 6 Georg Ohm a German physicist and mathematician. As a school teacher, Ohm began his research with the new electrochemical cell, invented by Italian scientist Alessandro Volta. Using equipment of his own creation, Ohm found that there is a direct proportionality between the potential difference applied across a conductor and the resultant electric current. This relationship is known as Ohm's law
Aug 20 Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his former university roommate, early friend, and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as difficult because of its apparently ever-changing nature
Oct 22 Jeremias Gotthelf a Swiss novelist, best known by his pen name of Jeremias Gotthelf.
Nov 2 Anton Pann an Ottoman-born Wallachian composer, musicologist, and Romanian-language poet, also noted for his activities as a printer, translator, and schoolteacher. Pann was an influential folklorist and collector of proverbs, as well as a lexicographer and textbook author
Dec 9 Almeida Garrett a Portuguese poet, playwright, novelist and politician. He is considered to be the introducer of the Romanticism in Portugal. He is regarded as one of history's greatest romantics and a true revolutionary and humanist