Born in 1854

Jan 1 James George Frazer a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. He is often considered one of the founding fathers of modern anthropology
Jan 3 Rudolf Kobert a German pharmacologist and toxicologist born in Bitterfeld.
Jan 8 Yan Fu a Chinese scholar and translator, most famous for introducing western ideas, including Darwin's "natural selection", to China in the late 19th century.
Jan 8 John Rahm an American golfer who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics.
Jan 9 Lady Randolph Churchill the American-born English wife of Lord Randolph Churchill and the mother of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
Jan 10 Louis Uedemann an American chess master.
Jan 11 Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers a British occultist. He is primarily known as one of the founders of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, a ceremonial magic order of which offshoots still exist today
Jan 13 Hector Frederik Estrup Jungersen a Danish marine zoologist born in Dejbjerg.
Jan 14 Vojtěch Hynais a Czech painter, designer and graphics artist. He designed the curtain of the Prague National Theatre, decorated a number of buildings in Prague and Vienna, and was a founding member of the Vienna Secession. He was made an Officer of the Légion d'honneur in 1924
Jan 18 Thomas A. Watson an assistant to Alexander Graham Bell, notably in the invention of the telephone in 1876. He is best known because, as the recipient of the first telephone call - although coming from just the next room - his name became the first words ever said over the phone. "Mr. Watson - Come here - I want to see you," Bell said when first using the new invention, according to Bell's laboratory notebook. There is some dispute about the actual words used, as Thomas Watson, in his own voice, remembered it as "Mr. Watson - Come here - I want you," in a film made for Bell Labs in 1931 which is referenced below in "The Engines of our Ingenuity."
Jan 21 Karl Julius Beloch a German classical and economic historian.
Jan 21 Eusapia Palladino an Italian Spiritualist physical medium. In Italy, France, Germany, Poland and Russia, Palladino seemed to display extraordinary powers in the dark: levitating and elongating herself, producing apports of flowers, materializing the dead, producing spirit hands and faces in wet clay, levitating tables, playing musical instruments under the table without contact, communicating with the dead through her spirit guide John King, and other related phenomena, but after investigation all these things were discovered to be the result of trickery. It was expensive to watch one of her performances
Jan 22 Sergei Korsakoff a Russian neuropsychiatrist.
Jan 24 Paul Natorp a German philosopher and educationalist, considered one of the co-founders of the Marburg school of neo-Kantianism. He was known as an authority on Plato
Jan 25 August Föppl a professor of Technical Mechanics and Graphical Statics at the Technical University of Munich, Germany. He is credited with introducing the Föppl–Klammer theory and the Föppl–von Kármán equations
Jan 26 Max Unger (sculptor) a German sculptor.
Jan 26 George Francis Atkinson an American botanist and mycologist.:6-8.
Jan 28 Ivane Machabeli a Georgian writer, translator, publicist, public figure, active member of the National-Liberation Movement, and a founder of the new Georgian literary language. He is also well known for his resonant translations of Shakespeare and for writing the opera of "The Knight in the Panther's Skin."
Jan 28 Volodymyr Kostyantynovych Vysokovych Prof. Volodymyr Kostyantynovych Vysokovych, or Vladimir Konstantinovich Vysokovich , the Head of the Department of Pathologic Anatomy at Medical Faculty of Volodymyr Kyiv University, one of the founders of the Society of Struggle with Infectious Diseases and Kyiv Bacteriological Institute
Jan 31 Stefan Stambolov a Bulgarian politician, who served as Prime Minister and regent. He is considered one of the most important and popular "Founders of Modern Bulgaria", and is sometimes referred to as "the Bulgarian Bismarck"
Jan 31 Ludwig von Pastor a German historian and a diplomat for Austria. He became one of the most important Roman Catholic historians of his time and is most notable for his History of the Popes. He was raised to the nobility by the Emperor Franz Joseph I in 1908
Jan 31 David Emmanuel (mathematician) a Romanian Jewish mathematician and member of the Romanian Academy, considered to be the founder of the modern mathematics school in Romania.
Feb 6 Prince Thomas Duke of Genoa an Italian royal prince, nephew of the King of Sardinia, who on 18 February 1861 became the first King of a united Italy. His cousin and brother-in-law Umberto I and his nephew Victor Emmanuel III became subsequent kings of Italy
Feb 9 Edward Carson Baron Carson an Irish unionist politician, barrister and judge. He was leader of the Irish Unionist Alliance and Ulster Unionist Party between 1910 and 1921, held numerous positions in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom and served as a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. He was one of the few people not a monarch to receive a British state funeral. Historian John Brown says that "His larger than life-size statue, erected in his own lifetime in front of the Northern Ireland parliament at Stormont, symbolizes the widely held perception that Northern Ireland is Carson's creation."
Feb 9 Aletta Jacobs the first woman to complete a university course in the Netherlands and the first female physician. She was born to a Jewish doctor's family in Sappemeer. She left the local school when she was 13 to study at a ladies' school but did not enjoy the experience, returning home after just two weeks where she was taught housework by her Dutch mother, Anna de Jong, but also learned French and German in the evenings, and later Latin and Greek from her father
Feb 15 Aleksei Korotnev a Russian zoologist.
Feb 16 Charles Webster Leadbeater an influential member of the Theosophical Society, author on occult subjects and co-initiator with I. Wedgwood of the Liberal Catholic Church
Feb 16 Grand Duchess Vera Constantinovna of Russia a daughter of Grand Duke Konstantine Nicholaievich of Russia. She was a granddaughter of Tsar Nicholas I and first cousin of Tsar Alexander III of Russia
Feb 17 Najaf bey Vazirov an Azerbaijani playwright and journalist.
Feb 17 Friedrich Alfred Krupp a German steel manufacturer of the company Krupp.
Feb 18 Herbert Gladstone 1st Viscount Gladstone a British Liberal statesman. The youngest son of William Ewart Gladstone, he was Home Secretary from 1905 to 1910 and Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 1910 to 1914
Feb 27 Teodor Jeske-Choiński a Polish intellectual, writer and historian, literature critic. A friend and opponent of Henryk Sienkiewicz. Sienkiewicz novels were focused rather on Polish history, whereas Jeske-Choińskis were looking at broader, European context. In 1900 he published Tiara i korona, a novel about the dispute between the Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. Joanna Beata Michlic named him "one of the leading theorists and exponents of Anti-Semitism in Poland"
Feb 28 Princess Elisabeth Sybille of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach the first wife of Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg, Regent of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and of the Duchy of Brunswick.
Mar 1 Samu Pecz a Hungarian architect and academic.
Mar 3 Juliusz Zarębski a Polish composer and pianist. Some of his manuscripts have been found in the National Library of Poland
Mar 5 Ruth Belville a businesswoman from London. She, her mother Maria Elizabeth, and her father John Henry, sold people the time. This was done by setting a watch to Greenwich Mean Time, as shown by the Greenwich clock, and then selling people the time by letting them look at their watch
Mar 6 Nikolai Ruzsky a Russian general of World War I.
Mar 10 Arnošt Muka a German and Sorbian writer, linguist and man of science.
Mar 10 Thomas Mackenzie a Scottish-born New Zealand politician and explorer who briefly served as the 18th Prime Minister of New Zealand in 1912, and later served as New Zealand High Commissioner in London.
Mar 13 Adolf Noreen a Swedish linguist who served as a member of the Swedish Academy from 1919 until his death.
Mar 14 Thomas R. Marshall an American Democratic politician who served as the 28th Vice President of the United States under Woodrow Wilson. A prominent lawyer in Indiana, he became an active and well known member of the Indiana Democratic Party by stumping across the state for other candidates and organizing party rallies that later helped him win election as the 27th Governor of Indiana. In office, he proposed a controversial and progressive state constitution and pressed for other progressive era reforms. The Republican minority used the state courts to block the attempt to change the constitution
Mar 14 Alexandru Macedonski a Wallachian-born Romanian poet, novelist, dramatist and literary critic, known especially for having promoted French Symbolism in his native country, and for leading the Romanian Symbolist movement during its early decades. A forerunner of local modernist literature, he is the first local author to have used free verse, and claimed by some to have been the first in modern European literature. Within the framework of Romanian literature, Macedonski is seen by critics as second only to national poet Mihai Eminescu; as leader of a cosmopolitan and aestheticist trend formed around his Literatorul journal, he was diametrically opposed to the inward-looking traditionalism of Eminescu and his school
Mar 14 John Lane (publisher) a British publisher.
Mar 14 Paul Ehrlich a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and chemotherapy. He invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria. The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different type of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases
Mar 15 Emil Adolf von Behring a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin. He was widely known as a "saviour of children," as diphtheria formerly was a major cause of child death. He was ennobled in 1901
Mar 21 Alick Bannerman an Australian cricketer who played in 28 Tests between 1879 and 1893.
Mar 21 Léo Taxil a French writer and journalist who became known for his strong anti-Catholic and anti-clerical views. He is also known for the Taxil hoax, a spurious exposé of Freemasonry and the Roman Catholic Church's opposition to it
Mar 23 Ernst Otto Wilhelm Taschenberg a German entomologist who specialised in Hymenoptera.
Mar 23 Alfred Milner 1st Viscount Milner a British statesman and colonial administrator who played an influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy between the mid-1890s and early 1920s. He was also the key British Empire figure in the events leading up to and following the Anglo-Boer War of 1899–1902 and, while serving as High Commissioner, is additionally noted for mentoring a gathering of young members of the South African Civil Service, informally known as Milner's Kindergarten who, in some cases, themselves became important figures in administering the British Empire. In the later part of his life, from December 1916 to November 1918, he was one of the most important members of David Lloyd George's War Cabinet
Mar 26 Maurice Lecoq a French sport shooter who competed in the late 19th century and early 20th century. He participated in Shooting at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris and won a silver medal with the French military pistol team and a bronze medal in the military rifle team. He also competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games and the 1908 Summer Olympics