Died in 1855

Jan 5 Mihály Pollack a Hungarian architect, key figure of neoclassical architecture. His main work is the Hungarian National Museum
Jan 6 Giacomo Beltrami an Italian jurist, author, and explorer, best known for claiming to have discovered the headwaters of the Mississippi River in 1823 while on a trip through much of the United States. Beltrami County in Minnesota is named for him, as are some other sites in the state. He had an extensive network of notable figures for friends and acquaintances, such as members of the powerful Medici family
Jan 8 Diponegoro a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule. He played an important role in the Java War. In 1830, the Dutch exiled him to Makassar
Jan 10 Mary Russell Mitford an English author and dramatist. She was born at Alresford, Hampshire. Her place in English literature is as the author of Our Village. This series of sketches of village scenes and vividly drawn characters was based upon life in Three Mile Cross, a hamlet in the parish of Shinfield, near Reading in Berkshire, where she lived
Jan 12 Maria Theresa of Austria (1801–1855) born an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Tuscany. In 1817 she married and became the Queen of Sardinia. She was the wife of King Charles Albert of Sardinia and a daughter of Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Luisa of Naples and Sicily. She was named after her double great grandmother Empress Maria Theresa
Jan 15 Henri Braconnot a French chemist and pharmacist.
Jan 16 Nikolay Protasov a Russian general and Ober-Procurator of the Most Holy Synod from 24 February 1836 to 16 January 1855.
Jan 17 Andrew Barnard an Irish British Army officer. He served in various capacities in the West Indies, the Cape of Good Hope, Canada, the Netherlands, Sicily, Spain and in the Napoleonic Wars including the Battle of Waterloo for which service he was highly decorated. After his retirement from active duty, he served in a number of civilian positions, being promoted to general four years before his death
Jan 20 Richard Jones (economist) an English economist who criticised the theoretical views of David Ricardo and R. Malthus on economic rent and population
Jan 20 Adelaide of Austria the first wife of Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, future King of Italy. She was the mother of some eight children including the future Umberto I of Italy. She was the Queen of Sardinia from 1849 until 1855 when she died as a result of childbirth
Jan 24 Aleksandr Vitberg a Russian Neoclassical architect of Swedish stock.
Jan 25 Gaetano Rossi an Italian opera librettist for several of the well-known bel canto-era composers including Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Saverio Mercadante in Italy and Giacomo Meyerbeer in one of his early Italian successes. Other composers with whom he worked included Simon Mayr, a composer and Donizetti's teacher, as well as the prolific Giovanni Pacini
Jan 25 Dorothy Wordsworth an English author, poet and diarist. She was the sister of the Romantic poet William Wordsworth, and the two were close all their lives. Wordsworth had no ambitions to be an author, and her writings consist only of series of letters, diary entries, poems and short stories
Jan 26 Gérard de Nerval the nom-de-plume of the French writer, poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie, one of the most essentially Romantic of French poets.
Feb 6 Josef Munzinger a Swiss politician.
Feb 9 Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro briefly Interim President of Peru twice in 1822 and 1833.
Feb 10 Prince Ferdinando Duke of Genoa (1822–1855) the founder of the Genoa branch of the House of Savoy.
Feb 10 Ernst Ludwig von Aster Prussian, Saxon and Russian general. He took part in fortifying several fortresses, including in Cologne, Poznań and Königsberg. In his honor, in the Poznań Fortress and Koblenz Fortress have been given for forts names from surname Aster
Feb 11 Sahle Dengel nəgusä nägäst of Ethiopia intermittently between 1832 and 11 February 1855, towards the end of the Zemene Mesafint. He was the son of Gebre Mesay, allegedly a descendant of a younger son of Emperor Fasilides
Feb 15 József Teleki a Hungarian jurist and historian, who served as the first President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1830 until his death.
Feb 15 Adalbert von Ladenberg a Prussian politician.
Feb 20 Joseph Hume a Scottish doctor and Radical MP, born in Montrose, Angus.
Feb 23 Carl Friedrich Gauss a German mathematician, who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy, Matrix theory, and optics.
Feb 24 Carl Anton von Meyer a German, Russified botanist and explorer.
Mar 1 Georges Louis Duvernoy a French zoologist. He assisted Georges Cuvier in writing Leçons d'anatomie comparée. He was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1847 and a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1851
Mar 2 Nicholas I of Russia the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. He is best known as a reactionary tsar whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent, economic stagnation, poor administrative policies, a corrupt bureaucracy, and frequent wars that culminated in Russia's defeat in the Crimean War of 1853-56. His biographer Nicholas Riasanovsky, says Nicholas displayed determination, singleness of purpose, and an iron will, along with a powerful sense of duty and a dedication to very hard work. He saw himself as a soldier – a junior officer totally consumed by spit and polish. A handsome man, he was highly nervous and aggressive. Trained as an engineer, he was a stickler for minute detail. His reign had an ideology called "Official Nationality" that was proclaimed officially in 1833. It was a reactionary policy based on orthodoxy in religion, autocracy in government, and Russian nationalism
Mar 3 Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure a French lawyer and statesman.
Mar 7 Vladimir Istomin a Russian rear admiral and hero of the Siege of Sevastopol.
Mar 8 William Poole the leader of the New York City gang Bowery Boys, a bare-knuckle boxer, and a leader of the Know Nothing political movement.
Mar 10 Carl Mayer von Rothschild a German-born banker in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the founder of the Rothschild banking family of Naples.
Mar 10 Infante Carlos Count of Molina the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Luisa of Parma. As Carlos V he was the first of the Carlist claimants to the throne of Spain. He is often referred to simply as 'Don Carlos'. He was a reactionary angry with liberalism in Spain and the assaults on the Catholic Church. He claimed the throne of Spain after the death of his older brother King Ferdinand VII in 1833. His claim was contested by liberal forces loyal to the dead king's infant daughter. The result was the bloody First Carlist War. Don Carlos had support from Basque provinces and much of Catalonia, but it was not enough and he lost the war and never became king. His heirs continued the arch-conservative cause, fought two more "Carlist" wars and were active into the mid-20th century, but never obtained the throne
Mar 14 Edward Bromhead a British landowner and mathematician best remembered as patron of the mathematician and physicist George Green.
Mar 17 Ramon Carnicer a Catalan composer and opera conductor, today best known for composing the National Anthem of Chile.
Mar 20 Joseph Aspdin an English cement manufacturer who obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October 1824.
Mar 21 Kitsos Tzavelas a Greek fighter in the Greek War of Independence and later Greek Army General and Prime Minister of Greece.
Mar 26 Jean Charles Dominique de Lacretelle a French historian and journalist.
Mar 29 Henri Druey a Swiss politician of the 19th century and a founding father of constitutional democracy in Switzerland.
Mar 30 Princess Charlotte Frederica of Prussia the eldest daughter of Prince Albert of Prussia and his wife Princess Marianne of the Netherlands. She died before her husband Georg of Saxe-Meiningen could succeed as Duke, making her Hereditary Princess of Saxe-Meiningen
Mar 30 Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg the daughter of Duke Louis of Württemberg and Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg.
Mar 31 Charlotte Brontë an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature. She published her best known novel, Jane Eyre, under the pen name Currer Bell
Apr 1 Józef Zaliwski a Polish pułkownik of Kingdom of Poland, independence activist.
Apr 13 Henry De la Beche an English geologist and palaeontologist, the first director of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, who helped pioneer early geological survey methods.
Apr 15 Wilhem de Haan a Dutch zoologist. He specialised in the study of insects and crustaceans, and was the first keeper of invertebrates at the Rijksmuseum in Leiden, now Naturalis. He was forced to retire in 1846, when he was partially paralysed by a spinal disease. He was responsible for the invertebrate volume of Siebold's Fauna Japonica, which was published in 1833, and introduced the western world for the first time to Japanese wildlife. He named a great many new taxa, and several taxa are named in his honour
Apr 18 Jean-Baptiste Isabey a French painter born at Nancy.
Apr 26 Maria Zhukova a Russian writer.
Apr 30 Henry Bishop (composer) an English composer. He is most famous for the songs "Home! Sweet Home!" and "Lo! Here the Gentle Lark." He was the composer or arranger of some 120 dramatic works, including 80 operas, light operas, cantatas, and ballets. Knighted in 1842, he was the first musician to be so honoured. Bishop worked for all the major theatres of London in his era — including the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden, the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, Vauxhall Gardens and the Haymarket Theatre, and was Professor of Music at the universities of Edinburgh and Oxford. His second wife was the noted soprano Anna Bishop, who scandalised British society by leaving him and conducting an open liaison with the harpist Nicolas-Charles Bochsa until the latter's death in Sydney
May 5 Sir Robert Inglis 2nd Baronet an English Conservative politician, noted for his staunch High church views.
May 14 Stevan Knićanin a Serbian voivode of the Serbian volunteer squads in Serbian Vojvodina during the 1848 revolution.
May 17 John C. Spencer an American lawyer, politician, judge and United States Cabinet secretary in the administration of President John Tyler.
May 23 Charles Robert Malden a nineteenth-century British naval officer, surveyor and educator. He is the discoverer of Malden Island in the central Pacific, which is named in his honour. He also founded Windlesham House School at Brighton, England