Born in 1856

Jan 3 R. C. Lehmann an English writer and Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1906 to 1910. As a writer he was best known for three decades in which he was a major contributor to Punch as well as founding editor of Granta magazine
Jan 6 Giuseppe Martucci an Italian composer, conductor, pianist and teacher. As a composer and teacher he was influential in reviving Italian interest in non-operatic music. As a conductor he helped to introduce Richard Wagner's operas to Italy and also gave important early concerts of English music there
Jan 7 Stoyan Mihaylovski a Bulgarian writer and social figure.
Jan 7 Richard Caton Woodville Jr. best known for being one of the most prolific and effective painters of battle scenes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Jan 8 Paul Henri Lecomte a French botanist.
Jan 9 Stevan Mokranjac a Serbian composer and music educator. Born in Negotin in 1856, Mokranjac studied music in Belgrade, Munich, Rome and Leipzig while in his twenties. Later, he became the conductor of the Belgrade Choir Society and founder of the Serbian School of Music and the first Serbian string quartet, in which he played the cello. He left Belgrade at the beginning of World War I and moved to Skopje, where he died on 28 September 1914
Jan 11 Christian Sinding a Norwegian composer. He is known for his lyrical works for piano, such as Frühlingsrauschen. He was often compared to Edvard Grieg and regarded as his successor
Jan 12 John Singer Sargent an American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida
Jan 14 J. F. Archibald Jules Francois Archibald, known as F. Archibald, , Australian journalist and publisher, was co-owner and editor of The Bulletin during the days of its greatest influence in Australian politics and literary life. He was also the founder and namesake of the annual Archibald Prize art award
Jan 16 Nikolai Kulchitsky a Russian anatomist and histologist, the last Minister of Education of the Russian Empire.
Jan 18 Daniel Hale Williams an African-American general surgeon and performed the second successful pericardium surgery to repair a wound. He also founded Provident Hospital, the first non-segregated hospital in the United States
Jan 25 Pierre Decourcelle a French writer and playwright.
Jan 25 Ashwini Kumar Dutta an Indian educationist, philanthropist, social reformer and patriot.
Jan 26 Nikolai Snessarev a Russian journalist, writer, literary critic and politician, in 1910s a member the Saint Petersburg City Duma. A prominent Novoye Vremya contributor and official , and later, in emigration, a supporter of Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich , Snessarev's two major books, "The New Times Mirage" and "Kirill I, the Koburg Emperor" , were satirizing both Novoye Vremya and the Grand Duke of Russia, whom he by now has got totally disillusioned with
Jan 27 Edward Bagnall Poulton a British evolutionary biologist who was a lifelong advocate of natural selection through a period in which many scientists such as Reginald Punnett doubted its importance. He invented the term sympatric for evolution of species in the same place, and in his book The Colours of Animals was the first to recognize frequency-dependent selection
Jan 29 Vladimir Golenishchev one of the first and most accomplished Russian Egyptologists.
Jan 29 Aleksander Brückner a Polish scholar of Slavic languages and literatures , philologist, lexicographer and historian of literature. He is among the most notable Slavicists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the first to prepare complete monographs on the history of Polish language and culture. He published more than 1,500 titles and discovered the Holy Cross Sermons
Jan 31 Hermann von François best known for his key role in several German victories on the Eastern Front in 1914.
Feb 2 Swami Shraddhanand an Indian educationist and an Arya Samaj missionary who propagated the teachings of Swami Dayanand. This included the establishment of educational institutions, like the Gurukul Kangri University, and played a key role on the Sangathan and the Shuddhi a Hindu reform movement in 1920s
Feb 2 Makar Yekmalyan an Armenian composer.
Feb 5 Otto Brahm a German drama and literary critic, theatre manager and director. His productions were noted for being accurate and realistic. He was involved in the foundation of the progressive Freie Bühne company, of which he became president and producer. He also edited the company's weekly magazine of the same name, but later changed its name to Die neue Rundschau
Feb 7 Emanuel Felke a naturopath who developed the eponymous Felke cure, and who was active in Repelen near Moers from 1896 to 1914 and in Bad Sobernheim from 1915 to 1925. He also practiced iris diagnosis and is considered the co-father of combination homeopathic remedies
Feb 8 Gustav Adolf Hugo Dahlstedt a Swedish botanist who worked at the Bergianska Trädgården and Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet in Stockholm. In 1907 he received his honorary doctorate
Feb 9 Hara Takashi a Japanese politician and the 19th Prime Minister of Japan from 29 September 1918 until his assassination on 4 November 1921. He was also called Hara Kei informally. He was the first commoner appointed to the office of prime minister of Japan, giving him the informal title of "commoner prime minister". He was also the first Japanese Christian Prime Minister
Feb 12 Hirase Sakugorō a Japanese botanist and painter. Born into a samurai family in Fukui, Hirase discovered the spermatozoids of the ginkgo in January 1894, before Seiichiro Ikeno discovered the spermatozoids of the cycad
Feb 12 Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli an Austrian general during World War I who rose to the rank of field marshal in the Austro-Hungarian Army. On October 30, 1940 he was promoted into a German general-fieldmarshal
Feb 14 Frank Harris an editor, journalist and publisher, who was friendly with many well-known figures of his day. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to America early in life, working in a variety of unskilled jobs before attending the University of Kansas to read law. He eventually became a citizen there. After graduation he quickly tired of his legal career and returned to Europe in 1882. He travelled on continental Europe before settling in London to pursue a career in journalism. Though he attracted much attention during his life for his irascible, aggressive personality, editorship of famous periodicals, and friendship with the talented and famous, he is remembered mainly for his multiple-volume memoir My Life and Loves, which was banned in countries around the world for its sexual explicitness
Feb 15 Emil Kraepelin a German psychiatrist. H.J. Eysenck's Encyclopedia of Psychology identifies him as the founder of modern scientific psychiatry, as well as of psychopharmacology and psychiatric genetics. Kraepelin believed the chief origin of psychiatric disease to be biological and genetic malfunction. His theories dominated psychiatry at the start of the twentieth century and, despite the later psychodynamic influence of Sigmund Freud and his disciples, enjoyed a revival at century's end
Feb 16 Ossian Everett Mills the founder of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity of America Inc., which was founded at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts, on October 6, 1898.
Feb 16 Rudolph Karstadt a German entrepreneur.
Feb 16 Willem Kes a Dutch conductor and violinist.
Feb 17 J.-H. Rosny aîné Rosny aîné was the pseudonym of Joseph Henri Honoré Boex , a French author of Belgian origin who is considered one of the founding figures of modern science fiction. Born in Brussels in 1856, he wrote in the French language, together with his younger brother Séraphin Justin François Boex under the pen name J.-H. Rosny until 1909. After they ended their collaboration Joseph Boex continued to write under the name "Rosny aîné" while his brother used J.-H. Rosny jeune
Feb 21 Princess Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1856–1941) a member of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and a Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies by birth and a member of the House of Zamoyski and Countess Zamoyska through her marriage to Polish nobleman Count Andrzej Przemysław Zamoyski.
Feb 21 Hendrik Petrus Berlage a prominent Dutch architect.
Feb 25 Mathias Zdarsky considered one of the founders of modern Alpine skiing technique. He was probably Austria's first ski instructor. He was also a teacher, painter and sculptor
Feb 25 Enrico Ferri an Italian criminologist, socialist, and student of Cesare Lombroso. However, whereas Lombroso researched the physiological factors that motivated criminals, Ferri investigated social and economic factors. Ferri was the author of Criminal Sociology in 1884 and the editor for Avanti, a socialist daily. His work served as the basis for Argentina’s penal code of 1921. Although at first he rejected the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, after his rise to power he became one of its main supporters outside the Fascist Party
Feb 25 Karl Gotthard Lamprecht a German historian who specialized in German art and economic history.
Feb 27 Kamio Mitsuomi a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, who commanded the Allied land forces during the Siege of Tsingtao in World War I.
Feb 27 Princess Isabella of Croÿ the daughter of Rudolf, Duke of Croÿ, and his wife, Princess Natalie of Ligne.
Feb 27 Mattia Battistini an Italian operatic baritone. He became internationally famous due to the beauty of his voice and the virtuosity of his singing technique, and he earned the sobriquet "King of Baritones"
Feb 28 Richard Mühlfeld a German clarinettist who inspired Johannes Brahms and Gustav Jenner to write chamber works including the instrument. The pieces that Brahms wrote for him are the Clarinet Trio, the Clarinet Quintet, and the Clarinet Sonatas
Mar 4 Alfred William Rich an English watercolourist, teacher and author.
Mar 4 Toru Dutt an Indian poet who wrote in English and French.
Mar 5 Mikhail Vrubel usually regarded amongst the Russian painters of the Symbolist movement. In reality, he deliberately stood aloof from contemporary art trends, so that the origin of his unusual manner should be sought in Late Byzantine and Early Renaissance painting
Mar 8 Bramwell Booth the first Chief of Staff and the second General of The Salvation Army , succeeding his father, William Booth.
Mar 8 Colin Campbell Cooper an American Impressionist painter, perhaps most renowned for his architectural paintings, especially of skyscrapers in New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago. An avid traveler, he was also known for his paintings of European and Asian landmarks, as well as natural landscapes, portraits, florals, and interiors. In addition to being a painter, he was also a teacher and writer. His first wife, Emma Lampert Cooper, was also a highly regarded painter
Mar 8 Georges Blondel a French historian, specialising in the history of Germany and Austria before 1914. Born in 1856 in Dijon, France, Blondel received his doctorate in 1881 and in 1894 was named professor of letters at Lille University. He died in 1948 in Paris.After receiving his doctorate in 1881 and the rank of agrégé in 1883, he was appointed to a chair of law at Lyon in 1884 and 10 years later was named professor of letters at Lille. He later taught at the École des Hautes Études Commerciales and the Collège de France in Paris
Mar 9 Tom Roberts a prominent Australian artist and a key member of the Heidelberg School.
Mar 9 Eddie Foy Sr. an American actor, comedian, dancer and vaudevillian.
Mar 11 Stepa Stepanović a Serbian military commander who fought in the Serbo-Turkish War, the Serbo-Bulgarian War, the First Balkan War, the Second Balkan War and World War Having joined the Serbian military in 1874, he fought against the forces of the Ottoman Empire in 1876. Over the following years, he climbed up the ranks of the Serbian Army and fought against Bulgarian forces in 1885. He eventually became the Serbian Minister of War in April 1908 and was responsible for instituting changes in the Serbian Army