1857 in history

1857 events chronologically

Jan 9 The Fort Tejon earthquake strikes California, registering an estimated magnitude of 7.9
Jan 24 The University of Calcutta is formally founded as the first fully-fledged university in South Asia
Mar 3 Second Opium War: France and the United Kingdom declare war on China
Mar 6 The Supreme Court of the United States rules in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case
Mar 21 An earthquake in Tokyo, Japan kills over 100,000
Mar 23 Elisha Otis's first elevator is installed at 488 Broadway New York City
Mar 29 Sepoy Mangal Pandey of the 34th Regiment, Bengal Native Infantry mutinies against the East India Company's rule in India and inspires the protracted Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny

Top 7 most famous people born in 1857

Feb 22 Robert Baden-Powell 1st Baron Baden-Powell a lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, founder of the Scout Movement and first Chief Scout of The Boy Scouts Association.
Feb 22 Heinrich Hertz a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. Hertz proved the theory by engineering instruments to transmit and receive radio pulses using experimental procedures that ruled out all other known wireless phenomena. The scientific unit of frequency – cycles per second – was named the "hertz" in his honor
May 13 Ronald Ross an Indian-born British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria. His discovery of the malarial parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of mosquito led to the realisation that malaria was transmitted by mosquitoes, and laid the foundation for combating the disease. He was quite a polymath, writing a number of poems, published several novels, and composed songs. He was also an amateur artist and natural mathematician. He worked in the Indian Medical Service for 25 years. It was during his service that he made the groundbreaking medical discovery. After resigning from his service in India, he joined the faculty of Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, and continued as Professor and Chair of Tropical Medicine of the institute for 10 years. In 1926 he became Director-in-Chief of the Ross Institute and Hospital for Tropical Diseases, which was established in honour of his works. He remained there until his death
May 31 Pope Pius XI born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti , reigned from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939. He was the first sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929. He took as his papal motto, "Pax Christi in Regno Christi," translated "The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ."
Jun 2 Edward Elgar an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire. Among his best-known compositions are orchestral works including the Enigma Variations, the Pomp and Circumstance Marches, concertos for violin and cello, and two symphonies. He also composed choral works, including The Dream of Gerontius, chamber music and songs. He was appointed Master of the King's Musick in 1924
Sep 15 William Howard Taft the 27th President of the United States and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States. He is the only person to have served in both of these offices
Dec 3 Joseph Conrad a Polish author who wrote in English after settling in England. He was granted British nationality in 1886, but always considered himself a Pole. Conrad is regarded as one of the greatest novelists in English, though he did not speak the language fluently until he was in his twenties. He wrote stories and novels, often with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of an indifferent universe. He was a master prose stylist who brought a distinctly non-English sensibility into English literature

Top 7 most famous people died in 1857

Feb 15 Mikhail Glinka often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music. Glinka's compositions were an important influence on future Russian composers, notably the members of The Five, who took Glinka's lead and produced a distinctive Russian style of music
Mar 9 Dominic Savio an Italian adolescent student of Saint John Bosco. He was studying to be a priest when he became ill and died at the age of 14, possibly from pleurisy
May 2 Alfred de Musset a French dramatist, poet, and novelist. Along with his poetry, he is known for writing La Confession d'un enfant du siècle from 1836
May 11 Eugène François Vidocq a French criminal and criminalist whose life story inspired several writers, including Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac. The former criminal became the founder and first director of the crime-detection Sûreté Nationale as well as the head of the first known private detective agency, Vidocq is considered to be the father of modern criminology and of the French police department. He is also regarded as the first private detective
May 23 Augustin-Louis Cauchy reputed to be an early pioneer of analysis. He started the project of formulating and proving the theorems of calculus in a rigorous manner, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra exploited by earlier authors. He almost singlehandedly founded complex analysis and initiated the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. A profound mathematician, Cauchy exercised a great influence over his contemporaries and successors. His writings cover the entire range of mathematics and mathematical physics
Jul 15 Carl Czerny an Austrian composer, teacher, and pianist of Czech origin whose vast musical production amounted to over a thousand works. His books of studies for the piano are still widely used in piano teaching
Sep 5 Auguste Comte a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term