Died in 1857

Jan 2 Andrew Ure a Scottish doctor, scholar, chemist. and early business theorist.
Jan 2 Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg a daughter of Prince Charles Christian, Duke of Nassau-Weilburg and Carolina of Orange-Nassau, daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange. Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is her descendant through her granddaughter, Queen Mary of Teck. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is her descendant through her granddaughter Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg, who happens to be the grandmother of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark. Juan Carlos I of Spain is a descendant of her granddaughter Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria, the grandmother of Alfonso XIII of Spain
Jan 3 Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour a French Catholic Archbishop of Paris.
Jan 8 Duke Eugen of Württemberg (1788–1857) a German prince and a General of Infantry in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.
Jan 13 József Szén a Hungarian chess master.
Jan 14 Johann Ludwig Christian Gravenhorst a German entomologist, herpetologist and zoologist.
Jan 21 Franz Krüger a German painter and lithographer. He was best known for his romantic and lively portraits and pictures of horses, which made him the most in demand military and portrait painter in Berlin. His paintings of military parades and hundreds of portraits led to him painting many of the "well to do" of the city
Jan 23 Mills Darden alleged to have been one of the largest men in history. He was widely reported to have stood approximately 7 feet 6 inches tall and is said to have weighed around 1,000 to 1,100 pounds at his heaviest, and possibly more. If the reported figures are correct, Darden was 30 percent taller and about six times as heavy as the average American male of the 21st-century
Jan 27 Dorothea Lieven a Baltic German noblewoman and wife of Prince Khristofor Andreyevich Lieven, Russian ambassador to London, 1812 to 1834. She was also an influential figure among many of the diplomatic, political, and social circles of 19th-century Europe
Feb 9 Dionysios Solomos a Greek poet from Zakynthos. He is best known for writing the Hymn to Liberty , of which the first two stanzas, set to music by Nikolaos Mantzaros, became the Greek national anthem in 1865. He was the central figure of the Heptanese School of poetry, and is considered the national poet of Greece—not only because he wrote the national anthem, but also because he contributed to the preservation of earlier poetic tradition and highlighted its usefulness to modern literature. Other notable poems include Ὁ Κρητικός , Ἐλεύθεροι Πολιορκημένοι and others. A characteristic of his work is that no poem except the Hymn to Liberty was completed, and almost nothing was published during his lifetime
Feb 10 David Thompson (explorer) a British-Canadian fur trader, surveyor, and map-maker, known to some native peoples as "Koo-Koo-Sint" or "the Stargazer." Over his career he mapped over 3.9 million square kilometers of North America and for this has been described as the "greatest land geographer who ever lived.".
Feb 12 Alexander Ivanovich Ostermann-Tolstoy a Russian nobleman and soldier in the era of the French Revolutionary Wars. He belonged to the famous Tolstoy family
Feb 13 Nerses V served as the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church between 1843 and 1857. Previously, he served as the leader of Diocese of Georgia from 1811 to 1830, the leader of the Diocese of Bessarabia and Nor Nakhichevan from 1830 to 1843
Feb 14 Johannes Bernardus van Bree a Dutch composer, violinist and conductor.
Feb 15 Mikhail Glinka often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music. Glinka's compositions were an important influence on future Russian composers, notably the members of The Five, who took Glinka's lead and produced a distinctive Russian style of music
Feb 16 Elisha Kane an American explorer, and a medical officer in the United States Navy during the first half of the 19th century. He was a member of two Arctic expeditions to rescue the explorer Sir John Franklin. He was present at the discovery of Franklin's first winter camp, but he did not find out what had happened to the fatal expedition
Feb 28 André Dumont a Belgian geologist.
Mar 1 Teodor Balş a caimacam who ruled Moldavia between July 20, 1856 and March 1, 1857. The Porte appointed him replacing the previous domnitor Grigore Alexandru Ghica, whos mandate finished after seven years. He closed institutions created by Grigore Alexandru Ghica, like the seminar and the gymnasium from Mănăstirea Neamț, the Law school from Iași, National bank and abolished the law press. He was against the unification of Moldavia with Walachia
Mar 3 William Brown (admiral) an Irish-born Argentine Admiral. Brown's victories in the Independence War, the Cisplatine War, and the Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata earned the respect and appreciation of the Argentine people, and today he is regarded as one of Argentina's national heroes. Creator and first admiral of the country's maritime forces, he is commonly known as the "father of the Argentine Navy"
Mar 9 Dominic Savio an Italian adolescent student of Saint John Bosco. He was studying to be a priest when he became ill and died at the age of 14, possibly from pleurisy
Mar 11 Manuel José Quintana a Spanish poet and man of letters. He was born at Madrid. After completing his studies at Salamanca he was called to the bar
Mar 12 Johann Jakob Heckel an Austrian taxidermist, zoologist, and ichthyologist from Mannheim in the Electoral Palatinate.
Mar 13 William Amherst 1st Earl Amherst a British diplomat and colonial administrator. He was Governor-General of India between 1823 and 1828
Mar 14 Tommaso Riario Sforza the Neapolitan Cardinal who, as protodeacon, announced at the end of the 1846 conclave the election of Cardinal Giovanni Mastai-Ferretti as Pope Pius IX.
Mar 18 Princess Maria Luisa Carlota of Parma a Princess of Parma and member of the House of Bourbon. She married Maximilian, Crown Prince of Saxony but remained childless
Mar 19 William Henry Playfair one of the greatest Scottish architects of the 19th century, designer of many of Edinburgh's neo-classical landmarks in the New Town.
Mar 20 Ours-Pierre-Armand Petit-Dufrénoy a French geologist and mineralogist.
Mar 21 Abraham Jacob van der Aa a Dutch writer. He was born in Amsterdam in 1792. His father was a lawyer. From the ages of 6 to 12, he visited the dayschool in Amstelveen. After that, he was sent to the boarding school of J.E. van Iterson in Aarlanderveen but only stayed there for a year. After a short stay at the Latin school in Leiden, where his parents lived at that time, he was sent to the Seminarium in Lingen, Germany to study the "dead languages"
Mar 22 Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wallroth a German botanist. His name is abbreviated Wallr. as a taxon authority
Mar 25 William Colgate an English manufacturer who founded in 1806 what became the Colgate toothpaste company.
Mar 26 John Mitchell Kemble the eldest son of Charles Kemble the actor and Maria Theresa Kemble. He is notable for his major contribution to the history of the Anglo-Saxons and philology of the Old English language
Mar 26 Wei Yuan a Chinese scholar from Shaoyang, Hunan. He moved to Yangzhou in 1831, where he remained for the rest of his life. Wei obtained the provincial degree in the Imperial examinations and subsequently worked in the secretariat of several prominent statesmen, such as Lin Zexu. Wei was deeply concerned with the crisis facing China in the early 19th century; while he remained loyal to the Qing Dynasty, he also sketched a number of proposals for the improvement of the administration of the empire
Apr 1 Théodolinde de Beauharnais a Franco-German princess. She was a granddaughter of Joséphine de Beauharnais, Napoleon's first wife
Apr 5 Jan Tyssowski a Dictator of the Republic of Kraków during the failed 1846 uprising. He was a Polish intellectual and activist during Poland's rebellions against its occupying powers. He studied philosophy and law at the University of Lwow. After the failed 1831 November Uprising, Russian authorities prohibited his return to Lwow, and he went study at the University of Vienna. He was a Polish political organizer in Galicia with Ludwik Mieroslawski, and was active within the aristocracy and insurrectionist movement. In 1846, Krakow revolted against the Austrians and they withdrew, leaving the Polish-controlled Republic of Krakow in Tyssowski's hands. The government had originally been established as a triumvirate between Tyssowski and two others, but personal differences led Tyssowski to take control. Intending a "classless society", he declared universal suffrage, emancipation of the peasantry, and the discontinuation of rents for peasants. The Republic attempted to expand into neighboring rural areas, and sympathetic peasants did join the cause, but these units were defeated by much larger Austrian armies, which also had broad support among the peasants. On March 3, Russia occupied the city and passed it back to Austria. Roughly 1,200 people were arrested and approximately 100 were imprisoned in the Kufstein Fortress. The Austrian Empire captured Tyssowski who surrendered to the occupying forces, and allowed him to emigrate
Apr 7 Count Karl Ludwig von Ficquelmont an Austrian aristocrat, statesman and Field marshal of the Austrian Imperial army of French noble origin.
Apr 8 Mangal Pandey an Indian soldier who played a key part in events immediately preceding the outbreak of the Indian rebellion of 1857.Mangal Pandey was a sepoy in the 34th Bengal Native Infantry regiment of the British East India Company. While contemporary British opinion considered him a traitor and mutineer, Pandey is widely regarded as a freedom fighter in modern India. In 1984, the Indian government issued a postage stamp to commemorate him. His life and actions have also been portrayed in several cinematic productions
Apr 13 François-André Isambert a French lawyer, historian, and politician. Isambert was founder and for an extended period contributor of the Gazette des Tribunaux and actively participated in Louis François Wolowski's Revue de législation et de jurisprudence
Apr 20 Benjamin Tappan an Ohio judge and Democratic politician who served in the Ohio State Senate and the United States Senate. He was an early settler of the Connecticut Western Reserve in northeastern Ohio and was one of the first settlers in Portage County and the founder of the city of Ravenna, Ohio
Apr 20 Ivan Kupreyanov the head of the Russian-American Company in Russian America from 1835 to 1840. Kupreyanov entered the Sea Cadet Corps while being only 10, in 1809. Kupreyanov served on the Mirny under captain Mikhail Lazarev during a circumnavigation led by Faddey Bellingshausen. Besides the discovery of Antarctica, island chains in the Pacific and Southern Oceans. He participated in an additional circumnavigation by Lazarev that lasted through 1822 to 1824. With the rank of Captain lieutenant Kupreyanov commanded a frigate and fought in the Black Sea against the Ottoman Navy during the Russo-Turkish War
Apr 29 Antoine-Félix Boisselier a French painter. A native of Paris, he was of the same generation as Camille Corot and Achille Etna Michallon. He studied with his brother and Jean-Victor Bertin, and is known to have visited Italy around 1811, in which year he painted two oil studies of that country. He first entered the Salon in 1812, and exhibited frequently thereafter; in 1824 he won a second-class medal. In 1827 he entered the first Prix de Rome competition for historical landscape. He placed second behind Michalllon, but nevertheless appears to have traveled to Italy soon thereafter. Many of his Salon entries, and many images he submitted to provincial salons, were views of Italian sites and historical landscapes. Later in his career he painted in the Auvergne region, as well as the Dauphiné and Provence. Boisselier taught drawing at the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr, and maintained a popular studio; he died in Versailles in 1857
Apr 30 Princess Mary Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh the 11th child and fourth daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom.
May 2 Alfred de Musset a French dramatist, poet, and novelist. Along with his poetry, he is known for writing La Confession d'un enfant du siècle from 1836
May 11 Eugène François Vidocq a French criminal and criminalist whose life story inspired several writers, including Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac. The former criminal became the founder and first director of the crime-detection Sûreté Nationale as well as the head of the first known private detective agency, Vidocq is considered to be the father of modern criminology and of the French police department. He is also regarded as the first private detective
May 16 Vasily Tropinin a Russian Romantic painter. Much of his life was spent as a serf; he didn't attain his freedom until he was more than forty years old. Three of his more important works are a portrait of Alexander Pushkin and paintings called The Lace Maker and The Gold-Embroideress
May 17 Wilhelm Gottlieb Tilesius von Tilenau a German naturalist and explorer, physician, draftsman and engraver. He was a member of the Order of Vladimir and of the Legion of Honour
May 20 Ivan Franjo Jukić remembered as one of the founders of Bosnian modernism.
May 22 Michael Hồ Đình Hy a Vietnamese mandarin official who was martyred for his Roman Catholic belief during the persecutions by Emperor Tự Đức. He was canonized in 1988 along with another 116 Vietnamese Martyrs
May 23 Augustin-Louis Cauchy reputed to be an early pioneer of analysis. He started the project of formulating and proving the theorems of calculus in a rigorous manner, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra exploited by earlier authors. He almost singlehandedly founded complex analysis and initiated the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. A profound mathematician, Cauchy exercised a great influence over his contemporaries and successors. His writings cover the entire range of mathematics and mathematical physics
Jun 2 Catherine Bagration a wife of the general Pyotr Bagration. She was known for her beauty, love affairs and outrageous behaviour
Jun 8 Douglas William Jerrold an English dramatist and writer.