Died in 1859

Jan 8 Stefan Bogoridi a high ranking Ottoman statesman of Bulgarian origin, grandson of Sophronius of Vratsa and father of Alexander Bogoridi and Nicolae Vogoride. Stefan and his brother Athanase were named Bogoridi after Boris I, the first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. Their parents were Ioan Vogoridi and Ana N
Jan 18 Alfred Vail an American machinist and inventor. Vail was central, with Samuel B. Morse, in developing and commercializing the telegraph between 1837 and 1844. Vail and Morse were the first two telegraph operators on Morse's first experimental line between Washington, DC, and Baltimore, and Vail took charge of building and managing several early telegraph lines between 1845 and 1848. He was also responsible for several technical innovations of Morse's system, particularly the sending key and improved recording registers and relay magnets. Vail left the telegraph industry in 1848 because he believed that the managers of Morse's lines did not fully value his contributions. His last assignment, superintendent of the Washington and New Orleans Telegraph Company, paid him only $900 a year, leading Vail to write to Morse, "I have made up my mind to leave the Telegraph to take care of itself, since it cannot take care of I shall, in a few months, leave Washington for New Jersey,... and bid adieu to the subject of the Telegraph for some more profitable business."
Jan 20 Bettina von Arnim a German writer and novelist.
Jan 21 Henry Hallam an English historian.
Jan 22 Joseph Ludwig Raabe a Swiss mathematician.
Jan 28 William H. Prescott widely recognized by historiographers to have been the first American scientific historian. Despite suffering from serious visual impairment, which at times prevented him from reading or writing for himself, Prescott became one of the most eminent historians of 19th century America. He is also noted for his eidetic memory
Jan 28 Carl Adolph Agardh a Swedish botanist specializing in algae, who was eventually appointed bishop of Karlstad.
Jan 28 F. J. Robinson 1st Viscount Goderich Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon PC , styled The Honourable J. Robinson until 1827 and known as The Viscount Goderich /ˈɡoʊdrɪtʃ/ GOHD-rich between 1827 and 1833, the name by which he is best known to history, was a British statesman. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between August 1827 and January 1828
Jan 29 William Cranch Bond an American astronomer, and the first director of Harvard College Observatory.
Feb 5 Alecu Russo a Moldavian Romanian writer, literary critic and publicist.
Feb 10 Princess Anna of Saxony (1836–1859) the seventh child and fourth eldest daughter of John of Saxony and his wife Amalie Auguste of Bavaria and a younger sister of Albert of Saxony and George of Saxony. Through her marriage to Archduke Ferdinand, Hereditary Prince of Tuscany, Anna was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and an Archduchess and Princess of Austria and Princess of Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, and Tuscany. Ann died shortly before her husband succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Tuscany
Feb 16 François-Léon Benouville a French painter.
Feb 23 Zygmunt Krasiński the trio of great Romantic poets who influenced national consciousness during the period of Poland's political bondage. He was the most famous member of the aristocratic Krasiński family
Feb 27 Friedrich Bleek a Biblical scholar.
Feb 28 Beda Weber a German Benedictine professor, author, and member of the Frankfurt Parliament.
Apr 12 Angiolina Bosio an Italian operatic soprano who had a major international career from 1846 until her premature death in 1859 at the age of 29. She sang at the most important opera houses in Boston, Havana, London, Madrid, Moscow, New York, Paris, Philadelphia, Saint Petersburg, and Verona. She was particularly admired for her performances in operas by Giuseppe Verdi
Apr 14 Sydney Lady Morgan an Irish novelist, best known as the author of The Wild Irish Girl.
Apr 14 Ignaz Bösendorfer an Austrian musician and piano manufacturer, who in 1828 founded the Bösendorfer company in Vienna-Josefstadt.
Apr 14 George M. Bibb an American politician.
Apr 16 Alexis de Tocqueville a French political thinker and historian best known for his works Democracy in America and The Old Regime and the Revolution. In both of these, he analyzed the improved living standards and social conditions of individuals, as well as their relationship to the market and state in Western societies. Democracy in America was published after Tocqueville's travels in the United States, and is today considered an early work of sociology and political science
Apr 16 Michael Reinecke a Russian vice admiral and hydrographer.
Apr 18 Tatya Tope an Indian Brahmin Maratha leader in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and one of its more renowned generals. He was a personal adherent of Nana Saheb of Bithur. He progressed with the Gwalior contingent after the British reoccupation of Kanpur and forced General Windham to retreat from Kanpur. Later on, he came to the relief of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi and with her seized the city of Gwalior. However he was defeated by General Napier's British Indian troops at Ranod and after a further defeat at Sikar abandoned the campaign. Finally he was betrayed by his trusted friend Man Singh. He was executed by the British Government at Shivpuri on 18 April 1859
Apr 18 Heinrich Friedrich von Arnim-Heinrichsdorff-Werbelow a Prussian statesman.
Apr 21 Otto Sendtner a German botanist and phytogeographer born in Munich.
May 2 Eliza Courtney the illegitimate daughter of the Whig politician and future Prime Minister Charles Grey and the society beauty Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, while Georgiana was married to William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire.
May 3 Anders Gustaf Dahlbom a Swedish entomologist.
May 4 Joseph Diaz Gergonne a French mathematician and logician.
May 5 Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet credited with being one of the first mathematicians to give the modern formal definition of a function.
May 6 Alexander von Humboldt a Prussian geographer, naturalist, and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography
May 8 José de Madrazo y Agudo a Spanish painter of the Neoclassic period. He was the father of the painters Federico de Madrazo and Luis de Madrazo
May 11 Archduke John of Austria a member of the Habsburg dynasty, an Austrian field marshal and German Imperial regent.
May 11 Karl Hoffmann (naturalist) a German physician and naturalist.
May 12 Sergey Aksakov a 19th-century Russian literary figure remembered for his semi-autobiographical tales of family life, as well as his books on hunting and fishing.
May 13 Denison Olmsted born at East Hartford, Connecticut. Professor Olmsted is credited with giving birth to meteor science after the 1833 Leonid meteor shower over North America spurred him to study this phenomenon
May 19 Heinrich Zollinger a Swiss botanist.
May 20 Josip Jelačić the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 May 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia
May 22 Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies King of the Two Sicilies from 1830 until his early death in 1859.
May 29 Robert Pashley a 19th-century English traveller and economist.
Jun 7 David Cox (artist) an English landscape painter, one of the most important members of the Birmingham School of landscape artists and an early precursor of impressionism.
Jun 8 Walter Hunt an American mechanic. He was born in Martinsburg, New York. Through the course of his work he became renowned for being a prolific inventor, notably of the lockstitch sewing machine , safety pin , a forerunner of the Winchester repeating rifle, a successful flax spinner, knife sharpener, streetcar bell, hard-coal-burning stove, artificial stone, street sweeping machinery, the velocipede, and the ice plough
Jun 11 Klemens von Metternich a politician and statesman of Rhenish extraction and one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation. One of his first tasks was to engineer a détente with France that included the marriage of Napoleon to the Austrian archduchess Marie Louise. Soon after, however, he engineered Austria's entry into the War of the Sixth Coalition on the Allied side, signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau that sent Napoleon into exile and led the Austrian delegation at the Congress of Vienna which divided post-Napoleonic Europe between the major powers. In recognition of his service to the Austrian Empire he was raised to the title of Prince in October 1813. Under his guidance, the "Metternich system" of international congresses continued for another decade as Austria aligned herself with Russia and, to a lesser extent, Prussia. This marked the high point of Austria's diplomatic importance, and thereafter Metternich slowly slipped back into the periphery of international diplomacy. At home, Metternich also held the post of Chancellor of State from 1821 until 1848, under both Francis I and his son Ferdinand After a brief period of exile in London, Brighton and Brussels that lasted until 1851, he returned once more to the Viennese court, this time to offer only advice to Ferdinand's successor, Franz Josef. Having outlived his generation of politicians, Metternich died at the age of 86 in 1859
Jun 19 Johann Gottlob von Quandt a German artist, art scholar and collector.
Jun 23 Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1786–1859) the third daughter of Paul I of Russia and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. She was the Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach by her marriage to Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Jun 25 Melchior de Marion Brésillac a Catholic prelate and the founder of the Society of African Missions.
Jul 5 Charles Cagniard de la Tour a French engineer and physicist.
Jul 8 Oscar I of Sweden King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to his death. When, in August 1810, his father Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected Crown Prince of Sweden, Oscar and his mother moved from Paris to Stockholm. Oscar's father was the first ruler of the current House of Bernadotte. Oscar's mother was Désirée Clary, Napoleon Bonaparte's first fiancée. Her sister, Julie Clary, was married to Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Désirée chose Napoleon to be Oscar's godfather
Jul 14 Petrus Borel a French writer of the Romantic movement.
Jul 17 Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen the Queen consort of King Peter V of Portugal.
Jul 22 Louis de Potter a Belgian journalist who became a famous politician and literature author. Out of the more than 100 books and pamphlets, one of the most notable works was his famous Letter to my fellow citizens in which he promoted more democracy, universal electoral rights and the Belgian unity of strengths between liberals and Catholics. As one of the heroes of the Belgian revolution, he proclaimed the independence of Belgium from the Netherlands , and inaugurated the first Belgian parliamentary assembly , on behalf of the Belgian provisional government
Jul 23 Marceline Desbordes-Valmore a French poet and novelist.