1859 events in history

Jan 24 Political and state union of Moldavia and Wallachia; Alexandru Ioan Cuza is elected as Domnitor in both Principalities
Feb 4 The Codex Sinaiticus is discovered in Egypt
Feb 5 Wallachia and Moldavia are united under Alexander John Cuza as the United Principalities, an autonomous region within the Ottoman Empire, which ushered the birth of the modern Romanian state
Feb 14 Oregon is admitted as the 33rd U.S. state
Feb 19 Daniel E. Sickles, a New York Congressman, is acquitted of murder on grounds of temporary insanity. This is the first time this defense is successfully used in the United States
Apr 4 Bryant's Minstrels debut "Dixie" in New York City in the finale of a blackface minstrel show
Apr 25 British and French engineers break ground for the Suez Canal
May 4 The Cornwall Railway opens across the Royal Albert Bridge linking the counties of Devon and Cornwall in England
May 31 The clock tower at the Houses of Parliament, which houses Big Ben, starts keeping time
Jun 4 Italian Independence wars: In the Battle of Magenta, the French army, under Louis-Napoleon, defeat the Austrian army
Jun 6 Australia: Queensland is established as a separate colony from New South Wales (Queensland Day)
Jun 15 Pig War: Ambiguity in the Oregon Treaty leads to the "Northwestern Boundary Dispute" between United States and British/Canadian settlers
Jun 18 First ascent of Aletschhorn, second summit of the Bernese Alps
Jun 24 Battle of Solferino (Battle of the Three Sovereigns): Sardinia and France defeat Austria in Solferino, northern Italy
Jun 28 The first conformation dog show is held in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England
Jul 8 King Charles XV & IV accedes to the throne of Sweden–Norway
Jul 30 First ascent of Grand Combin, one of the highest summits in the Alps
Aug 16 The Tuscan National Assembly formally deposes the House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Aug 27 Petroleum is discovered in Titusville, Pennsylvania leading to the world's first commercially successful oil well
Aug 28 The Carrington event disrupts electrical telegraph services and causes aurora to shine so brightly that they are seen clearly over the Earth's middle latitudes
Sep 2 A solar super storm affects electrical telegraph service
Sep 17 Joshua A. Norton declares himself "Norton I, Emperor of the United States."
Oct 16 John Brown leads a raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia
Oct 22 Spain declares war on Morocco
Oct 26 The Royal Charter is wrecked on the coast of Anglesey, north Wales with 459 dead
Nov 1 The current Cape Lookout, North Carolina, lighthouse is lit for the first time. Its first-order Fresnel lens can be seen for about 19 miles (31 km) in good conditions
Nov 15 The first modern revival of the Olympic Games takes place in Athens, Greece
Nov 24 Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species
Dec 2 Militant abolitionist leader John Brown is hanged for his October 16 raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia