1860 in history

1860 events chronologically

Jan 1 First Polish stamp is issued
Jan 2 The discovery of the planet Vulcan is announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris, France
Feb 27 Abraham Lincoln makes a speech at Cooper Union in the city of New York that is largely responsible for his election to the Presidency
Mar 5 Parma, Tuscany, Modena and Romagna vote in referendums to join the Kingdom of Sardinia
Mar 17 The First Taranaki War begins in Taranaki, New Zealand, a major phase of the New Zealand land wars
Mar 24 Sakuradamon incident: Assassination of Japanese Chief Minister (Tairō) Ii Naosuke
Mar 28 First Taranaki War: The Battle of Waireka begins

Top 7 most famous people born in 1860

Jan 29 Anton Chekhov considered to be among the greatest writers of short stories in history. His career as a dramatist produced four classics and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Chekhov practised as a medical doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress." Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theater
Mar 19 William Jennings Bryan a leading American politician from the 1890s until his death. He was a dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as the Party's candidate for President of the United States. He served two terms as a member of the United States House of Representatives from Nebraska and was the United States Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson , resigning because of his pacifist position on the World War. Bryan was a devout Presbyterian, a strong advocate of popular democracy, and an enemy of the banks and their gold standard. He demanded "Free Silver". He was a peace advocate, a prohibitionist, and an opponent of Darwinism on religious and humanitarian grounds. With his deep, commanding voice and wide travels, he was one of the best-known orators and lecturers of the era. Because of his faith in the wisdom of the common people, he was called "The Great Commoner."
May 2 Theodor Herzl an Austro-Hungarian journalist, playwright, political activist, georgist, and writer. He is considered to have been the father of modern political Zionism. Herzl formed the World Zionist Organization and promoted Jewish migration to Israel in an effort to form a Jewish state
May 9 J. M. Barrie a Scottish author and dramatist, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan. The child of a family of small-town weavers, he was educated in Scotland. He moved to London, where he developed a career as a novelist and playwright. There he met the Llewelyn Davies boys who inspired him in writing about a baby boy who has magical adventures in Kensington Gardens , then to write Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, a "fairy play" about this ageless boy and an ordinary girl named Wendy who have adventures in the fantasy setting of Neverland. This play quickly overshadowed his previous work and although he continued to write successfully, it became his best-known work, credited with popularising the name Wendy, which was very uncommon previously. Barrie unofficially adopted the Davies boys following the deaths of their parents
Jul 7 Gustav Mahler a late-Romantic composer and one of the leading conductors of his generation. He was born to a Jewish family in the village of Kalischt in Bohemia, in what was then the Austrian Empire, now Kaliště in the Czech Republic. His family later moved to nearby Iglau , where Mahler grew up
Sep 6 Jane Addams a pioneer American settlement social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. In an era when presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson identified themselves as reformers and social activists, Addams was one of the most prominent reformers of the Progressive Era. She helped turn America to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, local public health, and world peace. She said that if women were to be responsible for cleaning up their communities and making them better places to live, they needed the vote to be effective in doing Addams became a role model for middle-class women who volunteered to uplift their communities. She is increasingly being recognized as a member of the American pragmatist school of philosophy. In 1931 she became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and is recognized as the founder of the social work profession in the United States
Sep 13 John J. Pershing the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to General of the Armies, the highest authorized rank in the United States Army, signifying service directly under the president. Pershing holds the first United States officer service number. He was regarded as a mentor by the generation of American generals who led the United States Army in Europe during World War II, including George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, and George Patton. A somewhat controversial figure, his tactics have been harshly criticized both by commanders at the time and by modern historians. His reliance on costly frontal assaults, long after other allied armies had abandoned such tactics, has been blamed for causing unnecessarily high American casualties

Top 7 most famous people died in 1860

May 12 Charles Barry an English architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens. He is known for his major contribution to the use of Italianate architecture in Britain, especially the use of the Palazzo as basis for the design of country houses, city mansions and public buildings. He also developed the Italian Renaissance garden style for the many gardens he designed around country houses
May 21 Phineas Gage an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable:19 survival of a rock-blasting accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining twelve years of his life—​effects so profound that friends saw him as "no longer Gage.".
Jul 1 Charles Goodyear an American self-taught chemist and manufacturing engineer who invented and developed a process to vulcanize rubber in 1839, which he improved while living and working in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1844, and for which he received patent number 3633 from the United States Patent Office on June 15, 1844.
Sep 12 William Walker (filibuster) an American lawyer, journalist and adventurer, who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering." Walker became president of the Republic of Nicaragua in 1856 and ruled until 1857, when he was defeated by a coalition of Central American armies. He was executed by the government of Honduras in 1860
Sep 21 Arthur Schopenhauer driven by a continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction. Influenced by Eastern philosophy, he maintained that the "truth was recognized by the sages of India"; consequently, his solutions to suffering were similar to those of Vedantic and Buddhist thinkers. The influence of "transcendental ideality" led him to choose atheism
Oct 31 Thomas Cochrane 10th Earl of Dundonald a Scottish naval flag officer of the Royal Navy and radical politician.
Dec 14 George Hamilton-Gordon 4th Earl of Aberdeen a British politician, diplomat and landowner, successively a Tory, Conservative and Peelite, who served as Prime Minister from 1852 until 1855 in a coalition between the Whigs and Peelites, with Radical and Irish support. The Aberdeen ministry was filled with powerful and talented politicians, whom Aberdeen was largely unable to control and direct. Despite trying to avoid this happening, it took Britain into the Crimean War, and fell when its conduct became unpopular, after which Aberdeen retired from politics