Died in 1861

Jan 2 Frederick William IV of Prussia the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. Also referred to as the "romanticist on the throne", he is best remembered for the many buildings he had constructed in Berlin and Potsdam, as well as for the completion of the Gothic Cologne cathedral. In politics, he was a conservative, and in 1849 he rejected the title of German Emperor offered to him by the Frankfurt parliament, considering that it was not in the parliament's gift. In 1857, he suffered a stroke, and was left incapacitated, until his death
Jan 3 Arnold Adolph Berthold a German physiologist and zoologist. He studied medicine in Göttingen in 1819 and wrote his thesis under the direction of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. Berthold became a private lecturer in 1825 and began to teach physiology at the University of Göttingen where he spent the rest of his career. He is known as a pioneer in endocrinology due to his experiments on the role of the gonads in the development of secondary sexual characteristics. He published important works on reptiles and amphibians as well as on avian physiology. In the field of entomology, he authored Natürliche Familien des Tierreichs
Jan 5 Heinrich Alexander von Arnim a Prussian statesman.
Jan 12 Václav Hanka a Czech philologist.
Jan 17 Lola Montez an Irish dancer and actress who became famous as a "Spanish dancer", courtesan, mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, who made her Countess of Landsfeld. She used her influence to institute liberal reforms. At the start of the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, she was forced to flee. She proceeded to the United States via Switzerland, France and London, returning to her work as an entertainer and lecturer
Jan 21 Ernst Friedrich August Rietschel a German sculptor.
Jan 22 Friedrich Tiedemann a German anatomist and physiologist.
Jan 25 Charles Philipon Born in Lyon, he was a French lithographer, caricaturist and journalist. He was the editor of the La Caricature and of Le Charivari, both satirical political journals
Jan 26 Samuel Slocum an American inventor from Poughkeepsie, New York. He was born in Jamestown, RI, son of Peleg Slocum and Anne Dyer Slocum. He was raised in Usquepaugh, RI, a village in South Kingstown, RI, where a William Lockwood sometime after 1772, first invented the common pin with a head, to keep it from slipping through cloth. Samuel was the 6th of 8 children. He worked as a carpenter before he decided to move to London and become a pin maker. He married Susan Stanton Slocum in 1817 at Richmond, RI, and had three children, Samuel Dyer Slocum, Mary Slocum, and John Stanton Slocum
Jan 28 Henri Murger a French novelist and poet.
Feb 2 Théophane Vénard a French Catholic missionary to Indo-China. He was a member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society. He was beatified in company with thirty-three other Catholic martyrs, most of whom were natives of Tonkin, Cochin-China, or China. Pope John Paul II canonized him, with nineteen other martyrs, in 1988
Feb 5 Pierre Bosquet a French Army general. He served during the conquest of Algeria and the Crimean War; returning from Crimea he was made Marshal of France and senator
Feb 9 Karl Otto Ludwig von Arnim a German travel writer.
Feb 20 Eugène Scribe a French dramatist and librettist. He is known for the perfection of the so-called "well-made play" , a mainstay of popular theatre for over 100 years, and as the librettist of many of the most successful grand operas
Feb 21 Lars Levi Laestadius a Swedish Sami pastor and administrator of the Swedish state Lutheran church in Lapland who founded the Laestadian pietist revival movement to help his largely Sami congregations, who were being ravaged by alcoholism. Laestadius was also a noted botanist and an author. Laestadius himself became a teetotaller in the 1840s, when he began successfully awakening his Sami parishioners to the misery and destruction alcohol was causing them
Feb 21 Carl Wilhelm von Heideck a military officer, a philhellene and a Bavarian painter.
Mar 4 Ippolito Nievo an Italian writer, journalist and patriot. His Confessions of an Italian is widely considered the most important novel about the Italian Risorgimento
Mar 8 Heinrich Rudolf Schinz a Swiss physician and naturalist.
Mar 10 Taras Shevchenko a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer. His literary heritage is regarded to be the foundation of modern Ukrainian literature and, to a large extent, the modern Ukrainian language. Shevchenko is also known for many masterpieces as a painter and an illustrator
Mar 14 Louis Niedermeyer a composer chiefly of church music but also of a few operas, and a teacher who took over the École Choron, duly renamed École Niedermeyer, a school for the study and practice of church music, where several eminent French musicians studied including Gabriel Fauré and André Messager.
Mar 16 Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld the mother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
Mar 21 Joseph zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Dyck a German amateur botanist and owner of Castle Dyck. Dyck was a member of an important aristocratic family that had ruled a small territory until the Mediatisation of small German states in the early 19th century
Apr 2 Peter Georg Bang a Danish politician and jurist. He served as the Prime Minister of Denmark 1854-1856 as leader of the Cabinet of Bang
Apr 4 Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky a Bohemian nobleman and an Austrian statesman.
Apr 4 John McLean an American jurist and politician who served in the United States Congress, as U.S. Postmaster General, and as a justice on the Ohio and U.S. Supreme Courts. He was often discussed for the Whig and Republican nominations for President
Apr 6 Antonio Alessandrini
Apr 8 Elisha Otis an American industrialist, founder of the Otis Elevator Company, and inventor of a safety device that prevents elevators from falling if the hoisting cable fails. He worked on this device while living in Yonkers, New York in 1852, and had a finished product in 1854
Apr 10 Édouard Ménétries a French entomologist, zoologist, and herpetologist.
Apr 11 Francisco González Bocanegra a Mexican poet who wrote the lyrics of the Mexican National Anthem in 1853.
Apr 14 Utagawa Kuniyoshi one of the last great masters of the Japanese ukiyo-e style of woodblock prints and painting. He was a member of the Utagawa school
Apr 23 Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov a Russian Imperial general of the 19th century who commanded Russian troops in the Caucasus War.
Apr 26 Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer a Tyrolean traveller, journalist, politician and historian, best known for his controversial theories concerning the racial origins of the Greeks, and for his travel writings.
Apr 29 José María Obando a Neogranadine General and politician who twice served as President of Colombia. As a General, he initially fought for the Royalist Army during the Independence Wars of Colombia, ultimately joining the revolutionary forces of Simón Bolívar towards the end, but once independence was attained he opposed Bolívar's Centralist government
May 7 László Teleki a Hungarian writer and statesman. He is remembered as the author of the drama Kegyencz. In older books in English he is given the name "Ladislas Teleky"
May 9 Peter Ernst von Lasaulx a German philologist and politician.
May 16 John Stevens Henslow an English clergyman, botanist and geologist. He is best remembered as friend and mentor to his pupil Charles Darwin
May 18 Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov a Russian General of the Artillery from the Gorchakov family, who commanded the Russian forces in the latter stages of the Crimean War and later served as a Namestnik of Kingdom of Poland from 1856 until his death.
May 18 Friedrich August von Ammon a German surgeon and ophthalmologist born in Göttingen. He was the son of theologian Christoph Friedrich von Ammon
May 21 Eugène de Mazenod a French Catholic clergyman, beatified on 19 October 1975 by Pope Paul VI, and canonized on 3 December 1995 by Pope John Paul II.
May 22 Thornsbury Bailey Brown None
May 24 Elmer E. Ellsworth a law clerk and soldier, best known as the first conspicuous casualty of the American Civil War.
May 29 Joachim Lelewel a Polish historian, bibliographer, polyglot and politician, from a Polonized branch of a Prussian family.
Jun 1 John Quincy Marr a Virginia militia company captain and the first Confederate soldier killed by a Union soldier in combat in the American Civil War. Marr was killed at the Battle of Fairfax Court House , Virginia on June 1, 1861. He had been a delegate to the Virginia Secession Convention and ultimately supported secession of Virginia from the Union after initially opposing it
Jun 3 Stephen A. Douglas an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. He was a U.S. Representative, a U.S. Senator, and the Democratic Party nominee for President in the 1860 election, losing to Republican Abraham Lincoln. Douglas had previously defeated Lincoln in a Senate contest, noted for the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. He was nicknamed the "Little Giant" because he was short in physical stature, but a forceful and dominant figure in politics
Jun 3 Melchor Ocampo a Mexican lawyer, scientist, and liberal politician.
Jun 5 Georg Wilhelm Franz Wenderoth a German pharmacist and botanist.
Jun 6 Camillo Benso Count of Cavour an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. He was the founder of the original Liberal Party and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, a position he maintained throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy. After the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as Italy's first Prime Minister; he died after only three months in office, and thus did not live to see Venetia or Rome as part of the new Italian nation
Jun 7 Patrick Brontë an Irish Anglican clergyman and writer who spent most of his adult life in England and was the father of the writers Charlotte, Emily, and Anne Brontë and of Branwell Brontë, his only son. Patrick outlived all his children and outlived his wife, the former Maria Branwell, by forty years
Jun 13 Henry Gray an English anatomist and surgeon most notable for publishing the book Gray's Anatomy. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society at the age of 25
Jun 14 George Bishop (astronomer) a noted English astronomer of the nineteenth century.