Born in 1863

Jan 1 John M. Haines a U.S. politician from the Republican Party. He served as the tenth Governor of Idaho from 1913 to 1915
Jan 1 Pierre de Coubertin a French educator and historian, and founder of the International Olympic Committee. He is considered the father of the modern Olympic Games. Born into a French aristocratic family, he became an academic and studied a broad range of topics, most notably education and history
Jan 1 Aleko Konstantinov a Bulgarian writer, best known for his character Bay Ganyo, one of the most popular characters in Bulgarian fiction.
Jan 1 Heinrich Clam-Martinic an Austrian statesman. One of the last Prime Ministers in the Austrian half of the Austro-Hungarian empire, he was called during World War I to head a new cabinet by Emperor Charles on December 13, 1916, soon after the death of Emperor Franz Joseph on November 21, 1916. As Prime Minister, he replaced Ernest von Koerber, but his government only lasted until May 30 1917. He was succeeded by Ernst Seidler von Feuchtenegg , Baron Max Hussarek von Heinlein , and Heinrich Lammasch
Jan 3 Ekvtime Takaishvili a Georgian historian, archaeologist and public benefactor.
Jan 4 Adolphe Guillaumat a French Army general during World War I.
Jan 8 Paul Scheerbart a German author of fantastic literature and drawings. He was also published under the pseudonym Kuno Küfer and is best known for the book Glasarchitektur
Jan 8 Ellen Churchill Semple an American geographer. Ellen was born in Louisville, Kentucky, the youngest of five children by Alexander Bonner Semple and Emerine Price. She is most closely associated with work in anthropogeography and environmentalism. In a series of books and papers she communicated certain aspects of the work of German geographer Friedrich Ratzel to the Anglophone community. Standard disciplinary accounts often attribute to Semple a prevailing interest in environmental determinism, a theory that the physical environment, rather than social conditions, determines culture; however her later work emphasized environmental influences as opposed to the environment's deterministic effect on culture, reflecting broader academic discontent with environmental determinism after the First World War. Semple studied at Vassar College and the University of Leipzig. She taught at the University of Chicago and at Clark University. She died at West Palm Beach, Florida. Ellen Semple Elementary School in Louisville is named after Semple. She is buried in the Cave Hill National Cemetery in Louisville
Jan 12 Swami Vivekananda an Indian Hindu monk and chief disciple of the 19th-century saint Ramakrishna. He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century. He was a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India, and contributed to the concept of nationalism in colonial India. Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission. He is perhaps best known for his inspiring speech which began, "Sisters and brothers of America...," in which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago in 1893
Jan 12 Outram Bangs an American zoologist.
Jan 14 Lyubomir Miletich a leading Bulgarian linguist, ethnographer, dialectologist and historian, as well as the chairman of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences from 1926 to his death.
Jan 14 Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa a Portuguese army officer and politician, the tenth President of the Portuguese Republic and the second of the Ditadura Nacional.
Jan 14 Richard F. Outcault an American comic strip writer-artist. He was the creator of the series The Yellow Kid and Buster Brown, and he is considered the inventor of the modern comic strip
Jan 15 Wilhelm Marx a German lawyer, Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. He was Chancellor of the German Reich twice, from 1923 to 1925 and again from 1926 to 1928, and also served briefly as minister president of Prussia in 1925, during the Weimar Republic. He was the only Chancellor to serve two terms during the Weimar Republic
Jan 17 Constantin Stanislavski a Russian actor and theatre director. The Stanislavski system has had a pervasive influence, especially in the period after World War II
Jan 17 David Lloyd George a British Liberal politician and statesman.
Jan 19 Alexander Serafimovich a Russian/Soviet writer and a member of the Moscow literary group Sreda.
Jan 19 Werner Sombart a German economist and sociologist, the head of the “Youngest Historical School” and one of the leading Continental European social scientists during the first quarter of the 20th century.
Jan 19 Tommaso Pio Boggiani a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Genoa.
Jan 21 Friedrich W. K. Müller Müller , was a German scholar of oriental cultures and languages
Jan 24 Ferdinand Hellmesberger an Austrian cellist and conductor.
Jan 24 Matti Kurikka a Finnish journalist, theosophist, and utopian socialist.
Jan 26 Firidun bey Kocharli a prominent Azerbaijani writer, philologist and literary critic.
Jan 27 Léon Frapié a French novelist.
Jan 28 Ernest William Christmas an Australian painter. He was born near Adelaide, South Australia in 1863 and studied art in Adelaide, Sydney and in London. He painted widely in England, exhibiting in the early years of the century at the Royal Academy, the Royal Institute of Oil Painters, the Royal Society of British Artists, the Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts and in the provinces
Jan 30 Joseph Jastrow an American psychologist, noted for inventions in experimental psychology, design of experiments, and psycho-physics. Jastrow was one of the first scientists to study the evolution of language, publishing an article on the topic in 1886. He also worked on the phenomena of optical illusions, and a number of well-known optical illusions were either discovered or popularized in his work. Jastrow believed that everyone had their own, often incorrect, preconceptions about psychology. One of his goals was to use the scientific method to identify truth from error, and educate the layperson, which he did through speaking tours, popular print media, and radio
Feb 2 Nestor Kotlyarevsky a Russian/Soviet author, publicist, literary critic and historian. A high profile scholar and a Russian academy honorary member , Kotlyarevsky taught the history of literature in the Moscow University, a series of his lectures served later as a foundation for one of his best known works, The Nineteenth Century. Kotlyarevsky also went down in history as the first director of the Pushkin House
Feb 4 Antoine Lacroix a French mineralogist and geologist. He was born at Mâcon, Saône-et-Loire
Feb 4 Pauline de Ahna a German operatic soprano and the wife of composer Richard Strauss.
Feb 9 Anthony Hope an English novelist and playwright. He was a prolific writer, especially of adventure novels but he is remembered best for only two books: The Prisoner of Zenda and its sequel Rupert of Hentzau. These works, "minor classics" of English literature, are set in the contemporaneous fictional country of Ruritania and spawned the genre known as Ruritanian romance. Zenda has inspired many adaptations, most notably the 1937 Hollywood movie of the same name
Feb 13 Hugo Becker a prominent German cellist, cello teacher, and composer. He studied at a young age with Alfredo Piatti, and later Friedrich Grützmacher in Dresden
Feb 19 Axel Thue a Norwegian mathematician, known for highly original work in diophantine approximation, and combinatorics.
Feb 19 Augusto B. Leguía a Peruvian politician who twice served as President of Peru, from 1908 to 1912 and from 1919 to 1930.
Feb 20 Lucien Pissarro a landscape painter, printmaker, wood engraver and designer and printer of fine books. His landscape paintings employ techniques of Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism, but he also exhibited with Les Apart from his landscapes he painted a few still lifes and family portraits. Until 1890 he worked in France, but thereafter was based in Britain
Feb 22 Charles McLean Andrews one of the most distinguished American historians of his time as a leading authority on American colonial history. He wrote 102 major books and scholarly articles, as well as over 360 book reviews newspaper articles and short items. He is especially known as a leader of the "Imperial school" of historians who studied, and generally admired the efficiency of the British Empire in the 18th century. Kross argues:
Feb 23 Franz Stuck a German symbolist/Art Nouveau painter, sculptor, engraver, and architect.
Feb 23 John Adolph Shafer an American botanist.
Feb 23 Luigi Capotosti an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Apostolic Datary from 1933 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1926.
Feb 24 Umberto Cagni a polar explorer and an admiral in the Royal Italian Navy. He is best known for his leadership in a probe, by dogsled, northward over the surface of the Arctic Ocean in 1900. While his party failed in their goal of reaching the North Pole, on 25 April 1900 Cagni and his men achieved the northernmost point achieved by exploration up to that time, 86° 34′ N
Feb 27 Joaquín Sorolla a Spanish painter. Sorolla excelled in the painting of portraits, landscapes, and monumental works of social and historical themes. His most typical works are characterized by a dexterous representation of the people and landscape under the sunlight of his native land
Feb 27 George Herbert Mead an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists. He is regarded as one of the founders of social psychology and the American sociological tradition in general
Feb 28 Gheorghe Marinescu a Romanian neurologist, founder of the Romanian School of Neurology.
Feb 28 Alexis Lépicier a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who was Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for Religious.
Mar 1 Aleksandr Golovin (artist) a Russian artist and stage designer. He designed productions for Sergei Diaghilev, Constantin Stanislavski, and Vsevolod Meyerhold
Mar 1 Fyodor Sologub a Russian Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright and essayist. He was the first writer to introduce the morbid, pessimistic elements characteristic of European fin de siècle literature and philosophy into Russian prose
Mar 2 Count Richard von Bienerth-Schmerling an Austrian statesman.
Mar 3 Arthur Machen a Welsh author and mystic of the 1890s and early 20th century. He is best known for his influential supernatural, fantasy, and horror fiction. His novella "The Great God Pan" has garnered a reputation as a classic of horror. He is also well known for his leading role in creating the legend of the Angels of Mons
Mar 4 John Henry Wigmore a U.S. jurist and expert in the law of evidence. After teaching law at Keio University in Tokyo , he was the dean of Northwestern Law School. He is most known for his Treatise on the Anglo-American System of Evidence in Trials at Common Law and a graphical analysis method known as a Wigmore chart
Mar 4 Reginald Innes Pocock a British zoologist.
Mar 5 Patrick Bowes-Lyon a British tennis player, barrister and uncle of Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, mother of Queen Elizabeth II.